Please refer to the Case Study Questions Chapter 2 Federalism with answers provided for Class 10 Social Science. These solved case study based questions are expected to come in the Class 10 Economics exam in the current academic year. We have provided Case study for Class 10 Social Science for all chapters here. You should practise these solved case studies to get more marks in examinations.
Chapter 2 Federalism Case Study Questions Class 10 Social Science
1. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
A third tier of federalism was added in the form of Panchayats and Municipalities. As in any federation, these different tiers enjoy separate jurisdiction. The Constitution clearly provided a threefold distribution of legislative powers between the Union Government and the State Governments. Thus, it contains three lists: Union List includes subjects of national importance such as defence of the country, foreign affairs, banking, communications and currency. They are included in this list because we need a uniform policy on these matters throughout the country. The Union Government alone can make laws relating to the subjects mentioned in the Union List. State List contains subjects of State and local importance such as police, trade, commerce, agriculture and irrigation. The State Governments forest, trade unions, marriage, adoption and succession. Both the Union as well as the State Governments can make laws on the subjects mentioned in this list. If their laws conflict with each other, the law made by the Union Government will prevail. According to our constitution, the Union Government has the power to legislate on these ‘residuary’ subjects.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) What is the third tier of government known as?
(a) Village Panchayats
(b) State government
(c) Local self-government
(d) Zila Parishad
(ii) The Constitution of India
(a) divided powers between centre and states in three lists.
(b) divided powers between centre and states in two lists.
(c) listed the powers of the states and left the undefined powers to the state.
(d) Specified the powers of the states and left the residuary powers with the centre.
(iii) Which of the following subjects is not included in the Union list?
(b) Foreign affairs
(iv) Subjects like computer software comes in the
(a) Union List
(b) State List
(c) Concurrent List
(d) Residuary List
2. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country. Usually, a federation has two levels of government. One is the government for the entire country that is usually responsible for a few subjects of common national interest. The others are governments at the level of provinces or states that look after much of the day-to-day administering of their state. Both these levels of governments enjoy their power independent of the other. In this sense, federations are contrasted with unitary governments. Under the unitary system, either there is only one level of government or the subunits are subordinate to the central government. The central government can pass on orders to the provincial or the local government. But in a federal system, the central government cannot order the state government to do something. State government has powers of its own for which it is not answerable to the central government. Both these governments are separately answerable to the people.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) Identify the Government that consists of two or more levels.
(a) Coalition Government
(b) Community Government
(c) Unitary Government
(d) Federal Government
(ii) What is true regarding sources of revenue in a federal system?
(a) States have no financial powers or independent sources of revenue.
(b) States are dependent on revenue or funds on the central government.
(c) Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its financial autonomy.
(d) States have no financial autonomy.
(iii) The Constitution of India originally provided for:
(a) a two-tier system of government
(b) a three-tier system of government
(c) a single-tier system of government
(d) a four-tier system of government
(iv) Which of the following is incorrect regarding a unitary government?
(a) There is either only one level of government or the sub-units are subordinate to the central government.
(b) The central government can pass on orders to the provincial government.
(c) A state government is conservable to central government.
(d) The powers of state governments are guaranteed by the Constitution.
3. Read the source given below and answer the following questions:
A second test for Indian federation is the language policy. Our Constitution did not give the status of national language to any one language. Hindi was identified as the official language. But Hindi is the mother tongue of only about 40 per cent of Indians. Therefore, there were many safeguards to protect other languages. Besides Hindi, there are 21 other languages recognised as Scheduled Languages by the Constitution. A candidate in an examination conducted for the Central Government positions may opt to take the examination in any of these languages. States too have their own official languages. Much of the government work takes place in the official language of the concerned State. Unlike Sri Lanka, the leaders of our country adopted a very cautious attitude in spreading the use of Hindi. According to the Constitution, the use of English for official purposes was to stop in 1965. However, many non-Hindi speaking States demanded that the use of English continue. In Tamil Nadu, this movement took a violent form. The Central Government responded by agreeing to continue the use of English along with Hindi for official purposes. Many critics think that this solution favoured the English speaking elite. Promotion of Hindi continues to be the official policy of the Government of India. Promotion does not mean that the Central Government can impose Hindi on States where people speak a different language. The flexibility shown by Indian political leaders helped our country avoid the kind of situation that Sri Lanka finds itself in.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) The number of Scheduled Languages in India is
(ii) When was the use of English for official purpose stopped?
(iii) Here are three reactions to the language policy followed in India. Which of the following holds true in the case of India?
(a) The policy of accommodation has strengthened national unity.
(b) Language based states have divided us by making everyone conscious of their language.
(c) The language policy has only helped to consolidate the dominance of English over all other languages.
(d) All the above
(iv) Which language is recognised as the national language by the ©Constitution of India?
(d) None of these
4. Read the source given below and answer the following questions:
The exact balance of power between the central and the state government varies from one federation to another. This balance depends mainly on the historical context in which the federation was formed. There are two kinds of routes through which federations have been formed. The first route involves independent States coming together on their own to form a bigger unit, so that by pooling sovereignty and retaining identity they can increase their security. This type of ‘coming together’ federations include the USA, Switzerland and Australia. In this first category of federations, all the constituent States usually have equal power and are strong vis-à-vis the federal government. The second route is where a large country decides to divide its power between the constituent States and the national government. India, Spain and Belgium are examples of this kind of ‘holding together’ federations. In this second category, the central government tends to be more powerful vis-à-vis the States.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) Which one of the following countries is good example of ‘holding together’ federations?
(ii) Which of the following is not an example of ‘coming together’ federations?
(iii) Which are the basic objectives of a federal system?
(a) To safeguard and promote unity of the country
(b) To accommodate regional diversity
(c) To share powers among different communities
(d) Both (a) and (b)
(iv) In a ‘Holding together federation’:
(A) A large country divides its power between constituent states and the national government.
(B) The Central government tends to be more powerful vis-a-vis the States.
(C) All the constituent states usually have equal powers.
(D) Constituent states have unequal powers.
Which of the above statements are correct?
(a) (A), (B), (C) and (D)
(b) (A) and (D)
(c) (B) and (C)
(d) (A), (B) and (D)
5. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
Sri Lanka emerged as an independent country in 1948. The leaders of the Sinhala community sought to secure dominance over government by virtue of their majority. As a result, the democratically elected government adopted a series of MAJORITARIAN measures to establish Sinhala supremacy. In 1956, an Act was passed to recognise Sinhala as the only official language, thus disregarding Tamil. The governments followed preferential policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs. A new constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism. All these government measures, coming one after the other, gradually increased the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils. They felt that none of the major political parties led by the Buddhist Sinhala leaders was sensitive to their language and culture. They felt that the constitution and government policies denied them equal political rights, discriminated against them in getting jobs and other opportunities and ignored their interests. As a result, the relations between the Sinhala and Tamil communities strained over time.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) Tamil natives of Sri Lanka are called the:
(a) Indian Tamils
(b) Muslim Tamils
(c) Sri Lankan Tamils
(d) Christian Tamils
(ii) A belief that the majority community should be able to rule a country in whichever way it wants, by disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority is:
(a) Power Sharing
(b) Central Government
(d) Community Government
(iii) What is the state religion of Sri Lanka?
(iv) Identify the major social group that constituted the largest share in the population of Sri Lanka.
(a) Sri Lankan Tamils
(b) Indian Tamils
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Which government has the power to legislate on ‘Residuary’ subjects in India?
Ans. Union Government.
Question. Who presides over the meeting of the Municipal Corporation?
Ans. The Mayor/Municipal Commissioner/ Alderman.
Question. What do you mean by a Concurrent List? What subjects are included in this list?
Ans. A concurrent list includes 66 subjects over which both the centre and the state possess equal powers. Both of them can make laws on these subjects and in case of a deadlock, the will of the centre prevails over that of the states. education, forest, trade unions, marriage, adoption and succession are examples of certain subjects included in this list.
Question. Different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own JURISDICTION in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration. The jurisdictions of the respective levels or tiers of government are specified in the constitution. So the existence and authority of each tier of government is constitutionally guaranteed. Read the source given what is jurisdiction?
Ans. Jurisdiction is the area over which someone has legal authority. Jurisdiction can be defined by a geographical area or in terms of subjects.
Question. Which institution has been created in each state of India to conduct panchayat and municipal elections?
Ans. State Election Commissions have been created in each state of India for conducting panchayat and municipal elections.
Question. Who has the special powers in administering the Union Territories of India?
Ans. Central Government
Question. Arrange the following institutions of power according to the size of their jurisdiction in increasing order:
(a) Panchayat Samiti or Mandal
(b) State Government
(c) Gram Panchayat
(d) Zilla Parishad
Ans. (iii) (c)—(a)—(d)—(b)
Question. State any one step taken in Belgium to rule out the problem of regional differences and cultural diversities.
Ans. The Constitution of Belgium established equality by maintaining equal number of French and Dutch speaking people in the central government so that a single dominant community does not make majoritarian decisions.
Question. What do you understand by the Union list? Write its main features.
Ans. This list that includes subjects of national importance such as defence of the country, foreign affairs, banking, communications and currency is called union list. Following are its
(A) The subjects that included in the union list need a uniform policy throughout the country
(B) The Central government alone can make laws on the subjects mentioned in the union list.
Question. Define a Coalition Government?
Ans. A coalition government is a government formed when none of the contesting parties get majority seats in the elections for Lok Sabha or Legislative Assemblies. In such a case, two or more parties form a government by coming together, making an alliance and adopting a common programme. NDA led by BJP under Prime Minister Narender Modi ruling presently in India is an example of a coalition government while the Congress led UPA under Manmohan Singh had been the ruling coalition government in the country for 10 years.
Question. Who is a mayor?
Ans. The head of municipal corporation is called mayor.
Question. What percentage of reservation is given to women in local administration in India?
Ans. One third or 33% seats are reserved for women in local administration in India.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. How is sharing of power between the union and the state governments fundamental to the structure of the Constitution of India? Explain.
Ans. Sharing of power between states and the centre governments is fundamental to the structure of the Constitution of India, because without this division of power, it will be impossible to coexist in a diverse country like India. The states are significant parts of the union and the jurisdiction of both the state and union overlap at many areas. Hence, it is important to demarcate the boundaries, which are effectively done by the Constitution in India.
Question. Describe any three features of Federalism in India.
Ans. (A) Indian federalism is a threefold distribution based on three lists:
(i) Union List on which centre make laws such as defence, currency, etc.
(ii) State List on which state make laws such as police, trade, agriculture, etc.
(iii) Concurrent List on which both Centre and State Legislates such as education, marriage, etc.
(B) Centre legislate on ‘residuary’ subjects
(C) High Courts and the Supreme Court sorts out the dispute between centre and state.
Features of federalism are:
(1) There are two or more levels of government. India has three levels.
(2) Each level of government has its own jurisdiction in matters of legislation, taxation and administration, even though they govern the same citizens.
(3) The power and functions of each tier of government is specified and guaranteed by the Constitution.
(4) The Supreme Court has been given the power to settle disputes between different levels of government.
(5) The fundamental provisions of the Constitution cannot be altered by any one level of government alone.
(6) Sources of revenue for different levels are specified by the Constitution.
Question. Describe any three features of unitary govern-ment.
Ans. The features of unitary government are as follows:
(1) In unitary government, only a single central government controls all the powers.
(2) The regional units are subordinate to the central government. The central government can pass the orders for state and local self government.
(3) The Constitution could be published or unspoken according to people’s desires.
Question. Name any two subjects that are included in the Concurrent List. How are laws made on these subjects? Explain.
Ans. Subjects that are included in the Concurrent List are:
On these subjects, laws are made in the following ways:
(1) Both the union as well as the state government can make laws on the subjects mentioned in this list.
(2) If their laws conflict with each other, the law made by the union government will prevail.
Question. Describe any three steps taken to strengthen local self-governments, by the Constitutional Amendment, 1992.
Ans. Steps taken to strengthen the local selfgovernments by the Constitutional Amendment, 1992 are:
(1) Holding regular elections under the local government bodies has been made compulsory.
(2) Reservation of seats for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward classes was introduced in the elected bodies.
(3) One third i.e., 33% of the seats are reserved for women in all elected bodies.
(4) An independent institution, called the State Election Commission, was established in each state to conduct panchayat and municipal election.
Question. Under which type of federation is India classified? Mention any two features of such a federation.
Ans. India comes under ‘holding together federations’.
Features of the ‘holding together federations’ are:
(1) It decides to divide its power between the constituent states and the national government.
(2) In this federation, the central government tends to be more powerful than the state government.
(3) In this system, different constituent units of the federation have unequal powers.
Question. Explain in detail the meaning of federalism.
Ans. Meaning of federalism:
(A) Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.
(B) Usually a federal country has two levels of government. One is the government for the entire country that is usually responsible for a few subjects of national interest. The others are the provincial or state governments that look after much of the day-to-day administering of their state.
(C) Both these levels of governments enjoy their power independent of the other.
Question. What is a trade barrier? Why did the Indian government impose barriers to foreign trade and foreign investments after independence? Give reasons.
Ans. Trade Barriers are restrictions imposed by governments on import and export of goods in form of taxes or duties. The government can use barriers to regulate foreign trade. Reasons for putting barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment by the Indian Government were:
To protect the native craftsmen and domestic producers from foreign competition. Indian industries were only beginning to operate. They could not compete with finer quality products of cheaper price from foreign countries.
Question. Describe any three features of federal govenment.
State any three important features of Federalism
Ans. Key features of federalism:
(A) There are two or more levels (or tiers) of government.
(B) Different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.
(C) The jurisdictions of the respective levels or tiers of government are specified in the constitution.
(D) The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government. Such changes require the consent of both the levels of government.
(E) Courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of different levels of government. The highest court acts as an umpire if disputes arise between different levels of government in the exercise of their respective powers.
Question. Evaluate the strengths and limitations of local self-government in a democracy.
Ans. Strengths and Limitations of Local Self Government
(A) Problems and issues are best settled at local level.
(B) Many elected representatives in the panchayats and municipalities etc., all over the country.
(C) Constitutional status for local government has helped to deepen democracy in our country.
(D) It has also increased women’s representation and voice in our democracy.
(A) Elections of gram sabhas are not held regularly.
(B) Most state governments have not transferred significant powers to the local governments.
(C) Adequate resources are not there with local govt.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. What has been the language policy of India after independence? Explain in five points.
Ans. Language policy of India:
(A) No language in India has got the status of national language.
(B) Hindi was identified as official language, spoken by 40 per cent of Indians. Therefore, safeguards are taken to protect other languages.
(C) Including Hindi there are 22 languages recognised as scheduled languages by the constitution. A candidate in an examination conducted for the Central Government positions may opt to take the examination in any of these languages.
(D) States too have their own official languages. Most of government work is done in the official language of the concerned State.
(E) Use of English continues in India along with Hindi for offcial purposes.
Question. “India is a federal country. Do you agree? Explain.
Ans. “India is a Federal Country. This can be asserted through following arguments:
(1) Indian Constitution declared India as a Union of States post Independence; Indian union is based on the principals of federalism.
(2) The Constitution originally provided a two-tier system of government including the union government representing the Union of India and the state governments. A third-tier was added in the form of Panchayats and Municipalities later. Power division is a characteristic of Federalism.
(3) The three-fold distribution of legislative powers between the Union and State governments, containing Union list, State List and the Concurrent List.
(4) Neither the Parliament nor the state legislative assemblies can make any changes in the Constitution alone. Any changes to it has to be first passed by both the houses of the parliament with atleast two-third majority and later by state assemblies with two thirds majority.
(5) The judiciary plays an important role in overseeing the implementation of constitutional provisions and procedures.
(6) The Union and the State governments have the power to raise resources by levying taxes in order to carry on the governments.
(7) Indian System fulfills the dual objective of a federation through its administration system: to safeguard and promote unity of the country, while at the same time accommodate regional diversity.
Question. How is a federal government different from the unitary form of government?
Ans. The difference between federations or federal governments and unitary governments is as follows:
Question. Describe the importance of a third tier of government in a vast country like India.
Ans. The importance of a third tier of government in a vast country like India is as follows:
(1) A major step towards decentralisation was taken in 1992. The Constitution was amended to make the third tier of democracy more powerful and effective.
(2) Rural local government is popularly known by the name panchayati raj. Each village, or a group of villages in some states, has a gram panchayat. This is a council consisting of several ward members, often called panchs.
(3) A few gram panchayats are grouped together to form what is usually called a panchayat samiti or block or mandal. The members of this representative body are elected by all the panchayat members in that area.
(4) All the panchayat samitis or mandals in a district together constitute the zila (district) parishad. Most members of the zila parishad are elected. Members of the Lok Sabha and MLAs of that district and some other officials of other district level bodies are also its members. Zila parishad’s chairperson is the political head of the zila parishad.
(5) Local government bodies exist for urban areas as municipalities are set up in towns. Big cities are constituted into municipal corporations. Both municipalities and municipal corporations are controlled by elected bodies consisting of people’s representatives.
Question. Describe any five features of federalism.
Ans. The main features of federalism are as follows:
(1) Two or more levels of government: Usually, a federation has two levels of government- at the central level and another at the state or regional level which may or may not be subordinate to the central government. In India, third tier of government has been added in the form of Panchayats and Municipalities.
(2) Same citizens with separate jurisdiction: Different tiers of government govern the same citizens but each tier or level of government has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.
(3) Jurisdiction specified by the constitution: Thejurisdiction or powers of each tier or level of government are specified in the constitution. So the existence and authority of each tier of government are constitutionally guaranteed.
(4) No constitutional change without the consent of both the governments: The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government. Such changes require the consent of both the levels of government.
(5) Dual objectives: The federal system has dual objectives: to safeguard and promote the unity of the country and accommodate the regional diversity simultaneously.
(6) Sources of revenue: The sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its financial autonomy.
(7) The highest court acts as an umpire: Courts interpret the constitution and the powers of different levels of government. The highest court acts as an umpire if disputes arise between two or more levels of governments in exercising of their powers.
Question. ‘The Centre-State relations in India have been changed from time to time since independence.’ Explain the statement with argument.
Ans. The Centre-State Relations in India before 1990:
For a long time, the same party ruled at the centre and in most of the States in India after independence. The State governments didn’t exercise their rights as autonomous federal
units. As and when the ruling party at the state level was different, the parties that ruled at the Centre tried to undermine the power of the States. In those days, the Central government would often misuse the Constitution to dismiss the State governments that were controlled by rival parties. This undermined the spirit of federalism.
The Centre-State Relations in India after 1990:
Period after 1990 saw the rise of regional political parties in many States of the country. This was also the beginning of the era of coalition governments at the centre. Since no single party got a clear majority in the Lok Sabha, the major national parties had to enter into an alliance with many parties including several regional parties to form a government at the centre. This led to new culture of power sharing and respect for the autonomy of State Governments. This federal power sharing is more effective today which has made it difficult for central government to dismiss State governments in an arbitrary manner.