Please refer to Reproduction in Organisms Class 12 Biology notes and questions with solutions below. These revision notes and important examination questions have been prepared based on the latest Science books for Class 12. You can go through the questions and solutions below which will help you to get better marks in your examinations. We have provided the latest Class 12 Biology Notes and Questions for all chapters in your NCERT Class 12 Biology Book.
Class 12 Biology Reproduction in Organisms Notes and Questions
- Reproduction is the biological process in which an organism produces young ones (offspring) of its own kind.
- Reproduction is essential for the continuation of the line of succession and maintenance of a species in the biosphere. The methods of reproduction are broadly categorised into two types–asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction.
Differences between asexual and sexual reproduction
|Asexual reproduction||Sexual reproduction|
|1.||Asexual reproduction involves the participation of single individual parent.||Sexual reproduction involves participation of two separate parents.|
|2.||It generally occurs without the formation of sex organs.||It always requires the formation of sex organs.|
|3.||It does not involve meiosis or reduction division.||It involves meiosis which occurs at the time of gametogenesis.|
|4.||Asexual reproduction does not involve sexual|
fusion of two gametes. Zygotes are not formed
|The sexual reproduction requires fertilisation to|
take place between two opposite gametes leading
to the production of a zygote.
|5.||Since asexual reproduction does not involve|
meiosis and fusion of gametes, the offspring are
genetically similar to parents and they do not
|The individuals produced as a result of meiosis and|
gametic fusion exhibit genetic variation and differ
from either of the two parents.
|6.||It is a very quick method of multiplication of|
|It is a very slow method of multiplication of|
Various types of asexual reproduction have been summarised in the given flow chart
- All the organisms grow to a certain maturity in their life before they start reproducing sexually. The period of growth between their birth upto their reproductive maturity is called the juvenile phase.
In plants, the period of growth between seed germination upto initiation of flowering is called vegetative phase.
- Juvenile phase and reproductive phase are of variable durations in different organisms.
- On the basis of breeding time animals may be either seasonal breeders (reproduce in particular period of year) or continuous breeders (continue to breed throughout their sexual maturity).
- The females of placental mammals exhibit cyclical changes in the activities of ovaries and accessory ducts as well as hormones during the reproductive phase.
- In non-primate mammals like cows, sheep, rats, deer, dogs, tigers, etc., such cyclical changes during reproduction are called oestrus cycle whereas in primates (monkeys, apes, and humans) it is called menstrual cycle.
Events in Sexual Reproduction:
- These events of sexual reproduction take place before fusion of gametes. These include, gametogenesis and gamete transfer.
- It is the process of formation of gametes. The reproductive units in sexual reproduction are specialised cells called gametes which are of two kinds : male and female.
- In some lower plants (e.g., in some algae), the two gametes are morphologically similar, such gametes are called isogametes (or homogametes).
- When male and female gametes are morphologically distinct, they are called anisogametes (or heterogametes). In such organisms, male gametes are called microgametes, or spermatozoa, and female gametes are termed macrogametes, or ova.
- In plants when both male and female reproductive structures are present on the same plant then these plants are called as bisexual or monoecious e.g., cucurbits and coconut and when these reproductive structures are present on different plants then these plants are referred to as unisexual or dioecious e.g., papaya and date palm.
- In some lower animals, both male and female sex organs are present in the same individual. These animals are called hermaphrodite or monoecious or bisexual, e.g., tapeworm, earthworm and leech. Most of the animals are unisexual or dioecious with distinct male and female individuals e.g., Ascaris, cockroach, frog, lizards, birds, mammals.
- Gamete transfer : In most organisms, male gamete is motile and the female gamete is nonmotile. A medium is needed through which male gametes can move. In algae, bryophytes and pteridophytes, water serves as the medium through which gamete transfer takes place. In owering plants, pollen grains carry the male gametes which are transferred from the anther to the stigma by pollination. Many animals have copulatory organs to transfer male gametes.
- It is the complete and permanent fusion of two gametes from different parents or from the same parent to form a diploid zygote (syngamy).
- Syngamy is of two types with regard to the source of fusing gametes :
(i) Endogamy (Self-fertilisation) : It involves the fusion of male and female gametes of the same parent. Thus it is uniparental, e.g., Taenia (tape worm).
(ii) Exogamy (Cross-fertilisation): It involves the fusion of two gametes produced by different parents. Thus it is biparental, e.g., Rabbit.
- When fertilisation occurs outside the body of the organism, it is called external fertilisation or external syngamy.
- The external medium such as water is required for this type of fertilisation e.g., sh and frog.
- When egg is retained inside female body where it fuses with the male gamete, the process is called internal fertilisation or internal syngamy e.g., reptiles, birds, mammals, etc.
- Post-fertilisation events include :
(i) Formation of zygote : Aer fertilisation a diploid zygote is formed in almost all sexually reproducing organisms. Further development of the zygote depends on the type of life cycle of the organism and environmental conditions.
(ii) Embryogenesis : Embryo develops from zygote by a process called embryogenesis.
- During embryogenesis, zygote undergoes mitotic cell division and cell differentiation.
- Cell division increases the number of cells in the developing embryo while cell differentiation helps to form specialised tissues and organs to form an organism.
- On the basis of the development of the zygote, animals are grouped into oviparous, viviparous and ovoviviparous.
- The oviparous animals such as reptiles and birds lay eggs. In viviparous animals such as majority of mammals including human beings, the zygote develops into a young one inside the body of the female individual.
- In ovoviviparous animals, the female retains the eggs inside its body aer fertilisation and allows the development of the embryo inside the body without providing extra nourishment to the developing embryo as the placenta is absent. However, the female individual gives birth to the young ones e.g., sharks and rattle snakes.
- In flowering plants, the zygote is formed inside the ovule of the female sex organs.
- The fertilised ovule matures and gets converted into seeds. The wall of the ovary produces the pericarp (fruit wall).
- The ripened ovary enclosing the seeds forms fruits.The pericarp protects the young seeds.
- After dispersal the seeds germinate to form new plants.