Students can read the Case Study questions given below for The Crisis Of Democratic Order Class 12 Political Science. All The Crisis Of Democratic Order Class 12 Notes and questions with solutions have been prepared based on the latest syllabus and examination guidelines issued by CBSE, NCERT and KVS. You should read all Case Study Questions provided by us and the Class 12 Political Science Case Study Questions provided for all chapters to get better marks in examinations.
Case Study Questions of The Crisis Of Democratic Order Class 12
There are certain organisations which are set up for providing services to its members and the public in general. Such organisations are called Not for Profit Organisation. Eg: Clubs, charitable institutions, schools, welfare societies etc.
Question. Read the following paragraph and answer the questions that follows:
Students’ protests in Gujarat and Bihar, both of which were Congress ruled States, had far reaching impact on the politics of the two States and national politics. In January 1974 students in Gujarat started an agitation against rising prices of food grains, cooking oil and other essential commodities, and against corruption in high places. The students’ protest was joined by major opposition parties and became widespread leading to the imposition of President’s rule in the state. The opposition parties demanded fresh elections to the state legislature. Morarji Desai, a prominent leader of Congress (O), who was the main rival of Indira Gandhi when he was in the Congress, announced that he would go on an indefinite fast if fresh elections were not held in the State. Under intense pressure from students, supported by the opposition political parties, assembly elections were held in Gujarat in June 1975. The Congress was defeated in this election.
Question. When did the students start the protest in Gujarat?
(A) November 1974
(B) December 1974
(C) January 1974
(D) None of the above
Question. When did the assembly elections in Gujarat took place after the pressure of the protests?
(A) July 1975
(B) June 1975
(C) March 1973
(D) April 1974
Question. What was the implication of the Gujarat protest?
(A) Imposition of President’s rule
(B) Re-elections in Gujarat
(C) Students were arrested
(D) None of the above
Question. Which party did Morarji Desai belong?
(B) Janata Dal
(C) Bhartiya Janata Party
(D) Congress (O)
Question. Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follows:
In 1967 a peasant uprising took place in the Naxalbari police station area of Darjeeling hills district in West Bengal under the leadership of the local cadres of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). Beginning from the Naxalbari police station, the peasant movement spread to several states of India and came to be referred broadly as the Naxalite Movement. In 1969, they broke off from the CPI (M) and a new party, Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) (CPI-ML), was formed under the leadership of Charu Majumdar. It argued that democracy in India was a sham and decided to adopt a strategy of protracted guerrilla warfare in order to lead to a revolution. Currently, about 75 districts in nine States are affected by Naxalite
violence. Most of these are very backward areas inhabited by Adivasis.
Question. Which party was formed under the leadership of Charu Majumdar?
(A) CPI – ML
(B) Communist Regime
(C) Socialist Party
(D) Janata Dal
Question. How many states are currently affected by the Naxalite Movement?
(A) Seven states
(B) Nine states
(C) Eleven states
(D) Ten states
Question. In which area peasant uprising took place in 1967?
(A) Naxalbari police station
(D) None of the above
Question. What was this peasant movement called later?
(A) Maoist Movement
(B) Communist Movement
(C) Naxalite Movement
(D) Green Revolution
Question. Study the cartoon carefully and give the answers to the question that follows:
Question. Choose the correct option of the following to save democracy.
(A) At times military rule should be imposed to curb the violent crisis
(B) By focusing more on people’s fundamental rights, with the strong opposition in the parliament as well as in legislative assembly against the undemocratic practices
(C) By giving complete power to the President of the country
(D) All of the above
Question. What are the problems faced by the democratic government?
(A) Corruption and inefficiency, role of antisocial elements, growing economic and social inequalities, casteism and communalism
(B) Pressure from the non-democratic powerful nations to restrict the democratic rights of the citizens
(C) Pressure from the communist parties within the nation to impose socialism to eradicate the differences of economic distribution
(D) People despite of the differences, united and protesting against governments against the laws passed by them
Question. What does this picture depict?
(A) Military rule as the only solution to the problems of the country
(B) Democracy cannot go parallel with military rule
(C) Politicians supporting military rule
(D) None of the above
Question. Military rule and democracy can’t work together:
(A) because both give unnecessary freedom to people.
(B) because military and politicians keep on creating disputes for the nation.
(C) because, military rule imposes such restrictions wherein people’s fundamental rights are curbed.
(D) none of the above
Long Answer Type Questions :
Question. Examine any six reasons for the imposition of emergency in India in 1975.
Analyse any three reasons for imposing emergency on 25 June 1975. Did the government misuse its emergency powers? Give any three arguments in support of answers.
Answer: (i) Emergency was proclaimed in response to petition filed by Raj Narayan to declare Indira Gandhi’s election invalid.
(ii) On June 25, 1975, the government declared the threat of internal disturbances to invoke Article352 of constitution.
(iii) Article 352 can declare emergency on ground of either internal or external disturbances. (iv) The government decided a grave crisis to be arisen to proclaim emergency to bring law and order, restore efficiency and implement pro-poor Welfare Programmes.
(vi) The President FakhruddinAli Ahmad proclaimed emergency which became the most controversial episode in Indian politics.
(v) Power politics became personalised and governmental authority was converted into personalization
Question. What is Naxalite movement? Evaluate its role in Indian politics.
Answer: The Naxalites were the Marxist and Leninist agricultural workers of Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar and adjoining areas which organised massive agilations against economic injustice and inequality and demanded redistribution of land to cultivators.
Role in Indian Politics:
1. Naxalite, did not participate in the elections formally but these were actively associated with parties.
2. Naxalites ensured a better representation of demands of deprived social sections in party politics.
3. These movements retained associations or relations alongwith the political parties either as an individual or as an organisations.
Question. Assess any three happenings which were responsible for the downfall of Congress Party in the 1977 elections.
‘The 1977 elections for the first time saw the opposition coming to power at the centre’. Examine any six reasons for this change.
Answer: The 1977 elections were evolved as a shock to everyone as Congress Party was defeated for the very first time and opposition party came into power:
1. The opposition adopted the slogan ‘save democracy’ against imposition of emergency earlier.
2. The opposition campaigned non- democratic character of rule which provided various excesses.
3. The opposition party highlighted the preventive detention and press censorship to favour public opinion.
4. Janata Party also ensured not to divide non-Congress votes.
5. Middle section of North India was moving away from Congress for whom Janata Party became a platform.
6. Hence, elections of 1977 emerged many other factors instead about emergency only.
Question. Analyse any three lessons learnt from the emergency of 1975
Answer: (i) The emergency of 1975 at once brought out both the weaknesses’ and the strengths of India’s democracy. Though there are many observers who think that India ceased to be democratic during the emergency, it is noteworthy that normal democratic functioning resumed within a short span of time. Thus, one lesson of Emergency is that it is extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India.
(ii) It brought out some ambiguities regarding the emergency provision in the constitution that have been rectified since. Now ‘internal’ emergency can be proclaimed only on the grounds of ‘armed rebellion’ and it is necessary that the advice to the President to proclaim emergency must be given in writing by the Council of Ministers.
(iii) The Emergency made everyone aware of the value of civil liberties. The courts, too, have taken an active role after the emergency in protecting the civil liberties of the individuals. This is in response to the inability of the judiciary to protect civil liberties effectively during the emergency. Many civil liberties organizations came up after this experience.
Question. Explain any three outcomes of Lok Sabha elections of 1977.
Answer: 1. In March 1977 elections, for the first time, Congress lost elections with winning 154 seats only.
2. Janata Party and its allies won 330 seats out of 542 seats.
3. Congress lost from the states of Bihar, U.P., Haryana, Delhi and Madhya Pradesh.
4. Janata Party was formed of coalitions under the leadership of Jayaprakash Narayana.
5. Janata Party called this election as a referendum on emergency.
6. Opposition party realised not to divide the votes to enjoy the power under one umbrella.
7. All these indicated a tough time for Congress ahead.
Question. Examine the three consequences of emergency imposed in 1975.
Answer: (a) Effects on Civil Liberties of Citizens:
1. The government made large scale arrests under preventive detention.
2. Arrested political persons could not challenge arrest even under Habeas Corpus petition.
3. Despite filing many petitions government claimed it not to be necessary to be informed of grounds to arrested persons.
4. In April 1976, finally it was proved that the government could taken away citizen’s right to life and liberty by over ruling of high courts under supreme court and accepted government’s plea.
(b) Impact on Relationship between Parliament and Judiciary:
1. The parliament brought in many new changes in constitution which made an amendment declaring that election of Prime Minister, President and Vice¬president could not be challenged in the court.
2. The forty-second amendment (42nd) was also passed to bring a series of changes in constitution like duration of legislatures, elections can be postponed by one year during an emergency.
(c) Functioning of Mass Media:
1. Press censorship took place which banned freedom of press is newspapers were supposed to seek prior approval before they publish any material.
2. Protests, strikes and public agitations were also banned.
3. Various fundamental rights were also suspended including even Right to move to Court for Restoration of Fundamental Rights.
4. Kannada writer Shivarama Karnata awarded with Padma Bhushan and Hindi writer Fanishwarnath Renu with Padmashri returned their awards on protest against suspension of democracy.
5. Newspapers mainly Indian Express, and the Statesman protested against censorship by leaving blank editorial column.
Picture/Map Based Questions :
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
Question. When did cartoon appear in the newspaper and why?
Answer: This cartoon appeared few days before the declaration of emergency to capture the sense of impending political crisis.
Question. Identify the person behind Indira Gandhi.
Answer: The then Congress president D.K. Barooah.
Question. Identify what does the ‘Political Crisis’ stand for. Explain.
Answer: Political crisis in 1977 made the party system in India look like a two party system i.e. Congress and non¬Congress to end one party dominance and emergence of non-Congress party Janata Party as an umbrella for others.
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
Question. What situation does the picture refer to?
Answer: Appearance of Indira Gandhi before Commission but refused to answer any question.
Question. Which Commission is represented into the cartoon?
Answer: Shah Commission’s report about emergency.
Question. Mention some points of this Commission’s report.
Answer: (i) There were many excesses committed during emergency.
(ii) Several restrictions were put on the press sometimes without legal sanction.
(iii) Many people were arrested under preventive detention law.
(iv) Even general manager of Delhi Power Supply Corporation received verbal orders from the officers of Lt. Governor of Delhi to cut electricity to all newspaper presses at 2 a.m. on 26 June 1975.
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow :
Question. What was the slogan of Janata Party to campaign in elections?
Answer: Save Democracy.
Question. Identify the person who is sitting on ground holding the slogan.
Answer: Jayaprakash Narayan.
Question. Against which practices Jayaprakash Narayana agitated?
Answer: Corruption, lawlessness, violence, and most important against imposition of emergency.