CBSE Class 12 Note Making with Answers

Notes Class 12 Revision Notes

Please refer to Note Making Class 12 English writing skills solved questions provided below. Class 12 English students should refer to Class 12 Writing Skills Note Making study material below prepared based on the latest syllabus and examination pattern issued by CBSE, NCERT and KVS. You can refer to more Class 12 English writing skills material on our website

Question. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow :

Although stupidity is commonly defined as ‘a lack of normal intelligence’, stupid behaviour is not the behaviour of a person lacking in intelligence but the behaviour of a person not using good judgement or sense. In fact, stupidity comes from the Latin word that means ‘senseless’. Therefore, stupidity can be defined as the behaviour of a person of normal intelligence who acts in a particular situation as if he or she is not very bright. Stupidity exists at three levels of seriousness.

First is the simple, relatively harmless level. Behaviour at this level is often amusing. It is humorous when someone places the food from a fast food restaurant on the roof of the car while unlocking the door and then drives away with the food still in the roof. We call this absent-minded. The person’s good sense or intelligence was temporarily absent. At this level, other than passing inconvenience or embarrassment, no one is injured by the stupid behaviour.

The next type-serious stupidity-is more dangerous. Practical jokes such as putting sugar in the salt shakers are at this level. The intention is humorous, but there is a chance of harm. Irresponsible advise given to other is also serious stupidity. An example is the person who plays psychiatrist on the basis of an introductory psychology course or doing a TV program on psychiatry. The intention maybe to help, but if the victim really needs psychiatric help an amateur will only worsen the situation.

Even worse is the third of stupidity. Kind people, who would never injure another living being, stupidly throw away a box of six-week- old kittens along a country road. Lacking the heart to kill the poor things, they sentence them to almost certain death from wild animals, infections exposure or the wheels of passing vehicle. Yet they are able to tell themselves that they will find ‘nice homes’ or ‘animals can get along in the wild’. Another example of this kind of stupidity is the successful local businessman who tries to have as many office affairs as he can get away with. He risks the loss of his business and his home. He fails to see that what he is doing is wrong. His is the true moral stupidity of a person not willing to think about the results of his actions or take responsibility for them. The common defence of a person guilty of stupidity is – ‘But I did not think…..’ This, however, is not an inadequate excuse, especially when serious or harmful stupidity is involved.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary.

1. Meaning of stupidity
1.1    lacking intell.
1.2    no good judgement
1.3    senseless

2. Level of stupidity
2.1    amusing behaviour
2.2    serious stupidity
        – pract. jokes
       – irresp. advice
        – even worse

3. Absent – minded
3.1    inconve.
3.2    embarrassment

4. Unintentional stupidity
4.1    throw away anyth.
4.2    hurt or kill poor things

Abbreviations used :
1. intell. – intelligence
2. pract. – practical
3. irresp. – irresponsible
4. inconve. – inconvenience
5. anyth. – anything

(b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.
Answer:- Title : Types of Stupidity


The word stupidity comes from Latin word which means ‘senseless.’ It is commonly defined as a lack of normal intelligence. A person who does not use good judgement or sense is termed as stupid. First level of stupidity is harmless and it is defined by absent-mindedness. Second level of stupidity is about practical jokes which are more dangerous for example, putting salt in sugar container, etc. Third level of stupidity is when somebody unintentionally throws away poor things or animals. Another type of stupidity is when a successful businessman has many office affairs. It is because he thinks he can get away with his actions without taking any responsibility.

Question. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow :

Research has shown that the human mind can process words at the rate of about 500 per minute, whereas a speaker speaks at the rate of about 150 words a minute. The difference between the two at 350 is quite large.

So a speaker must make every effort to retain the attention of the audience and the listener should also be careful not to let his mind wander. Good communication calls for good listening skills. A good speaker must necessarily be a good listener.

Listening starts with hearing but goes beyond. Hearing, in other words is necessary but in a sufficient condition for listening. Listening involves hearing with attention. Listening is a process that calls for concentration. While listening, one should also be observant. In other words, listening has to do with the ears, as well as with the eyes and the mind. Listening is to be understood as total process that involves hearing with attention, being observant and making interpretations. Good communication is essentially an interactive process. It calls for participation and involvement. It is quite often a dialogue rather than a monologue. It is necessary to be interested and also show or make it abundantly clear that one is interested in knowing what the other person has to say.

Good listening is an art that can be cultivated. It relates to skills that can be developed. A good listener knows the art of getting much more than what the speaker is trying to convey. He knows how to prompt, persuade but not to cut off or interrupt what the other person has to say. At times the speaker may or may not be coherent, articulate and well organised in his thoughts and expressions. He may have it in his mind and yet he may fail to marshal the right words while communicating his thought. Nevertheless a good listener puts him at ease, helps him articulate and facilitates him to get across the message that he wants to convey. For listening to be effective it is also necessary that barriers to listening are removed. Such barriers can be both physical and psychological. Physical barriers generally relate to hindrances to proper hearing whereas psychological barriers are more fundamental and relate to the interpretation and evaluation of speaker and the message.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
Answer:Title : The Human Mind

1. Words Process
1.1 Processing 500 w.p.m.
1.2 Speaking 150 w.p.m.

2. Retain the Attn.
2.1 audience
2.2 listener

3. Good Comm.
3.1 Hearing or listening
3.2 Conc.
3.3 Attention
3.4 Interpretation

4. Listening barriers
4.1 Phy. hindrance
4.2 Psy.
(i) interpretation (ii) evaluation

Abbreviations used :
1. w.p.m. – words per minute
2. Attn. – Attention
3. Comm. – Communication
4. Conc. – Concentration
5. Phy. – Physical
6. Psy. – Psychological

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80 words.
Answer: Summary

Research has proved that the difference between processing and speaking rate is 350 words per minute which is quite large. Therefore, the speaker must retain the attention of the audience so, listener should not wander. A good speaker must necessarily be a good listener. Good listening is an art that can be cultivated. For effective listening physical and psychological barriers must be removed. In short, good communication is necessary for an interactive process.

Question. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow :

Effective speaking depends on effective listening. It takes energy to concentrate on hearing and to concentrate on understanding what has been heard.

Incompetent listeners fail in a number of ways. First, they may drift. Their attention drifts from what the speaker is saying. Second, they may counter. They find counter arguments to whatever a speaker may be saying. Third, they compete. Then, they filter. They exclude from their understanding those parts of the message which do not readily fit with their own frame of reference. Finally they react. They let personal feelings about speaker or subject override the significance of the message which is being sent.

What can a listener do to be more effective? The first key of effective listening is the art of concentration. If a listener positively wishes to concentrate on receiving a message his chances of success are high. It may need determination. Some speakers are difficult to follow, either because of voice problems, or because of the form in which they send a message. There is then a particular need for the determination of a listener to concentrate on what is being said.

Concentration is helped by alertness. Mental alertness is helped by physical alertness. It is not simply physical fitness, but also positioning of the body, the limbs and the head. Some people also find it helpful to their concentration if they hold the head slightly to one side. One useful way for achieving this is intensive note-taking, by trying to capture the critical headings and subheadings the speaker is referring to.

Note-taking has been recommended as an aid to the listener. It also helps the speaker. It gives him confidence when he sees that listeners are sufficiently interested to take notes; the patterns of eye contact when the note-taker looks up can be very positive; and the speaker’s timing is aided—he can see when a note-taker is writing hard and can then make effective use of pauses.

Posture too is important. Consider the impact made by a less competent listener who pushes his chair backwards and slouches. An upright posture helps a listener’s concentration. At the same time it is seen by the speakers to be a positive feature amongst his listeners. Effective listening skills have an impact on both the listener and the speaker.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary.
1. Eff. spk. rely on
1.1 Effective listening
1.2 Energy to conc. on hearing
1.3 Conc. on understanding what has been heard

2. Causes of failure for incomp. listening
2.1 drift in attention
2.2 face argument
2.3 complete
2.4 reaction/react

3. Factors affecting listening
3.1 Art of conc.
(a) Alertness
(b) Positioning of body
(c) Note taking
3.2 Determination
3.3 Voice problem

4. Imp. of note taking
4.1 Helps the speaker
4.2 Gives Confi.
4.3 Develops (+)ve eye contact

5. Imp. of Posture
5.1 Dev. int.
5.2 Increase level of conc.
5.3 Dev. (+)ve feature

Abbreviations and symbols used :
1. Confi. – Confidence
2. (+) ve – positive
3. Imp. – Importance
4. int. – interest
5. Dev. – Develop
6. Eff. – Effective
7. Spk. – Speaking
8. conc. – concentrate
9. incomp. – incomplete

(b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.
Answer: Summary

Effective speaking  and  effective listening  goes hand in hand. It is an art which depends upon a lot of factors like concentration,  determination  and clarity of voice. Incompetent listeners fail due to lack of attention, counter arguments, competition, etc. Alertness is a mental state of mind, which plays a pivotal role in this. Note taking, which includes eye contact is another important  factor. The way a person maintains his/her posture is equally important  to leave an important  impact on both the speaker and listener.

Question. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow :

The tests of life are its plus factors. Overcoming illness and suffering is a plus factor for it moulds character. Steel is iron plus fire, soil is rock plus heat. So let’s include the plus factor in our lives.

Sometimes the plus factor is more readily seen by the simple-hearted. Myers tells the story of a mother who brought into her home – as a companion to her own son – a little boy who happened to have a hunchback. She had warned her son to be careful not to refer to his disability, and to go right on playing with him as if he were like any other boy.

The boys were playing and after a few minutes she overheard her son say to his companion: “Do you know what you have got on your back?” The little boy was embarrassed, but before he could reply, his playmate continued: “It is the box in which your wings are and some day God is going to cut it open and then you will fly away and be an angel.”

Often it takes a third eye, or a change in focus, to see the plus factor. Walking along the corridors of a hospital recently where patients were struggling with fear of pain and tests, I was perturbed. What gave me fresh perspective were the sayings put up everywhere, intended to uplift. One saying made me conscious of the beauty of the universe in the midst of pain, suffering and struggle. The other saying assured me that God was with me when I was in deep water and that no troubles would overwhelm me.

The impact of those sayings also made me aware of the nether springs that flow into people’s lives when they touch rock-bottom or lonely, or even deserted. The nether springs make recovery possible, and they bring peace and patience in the midst of pain and distress.

The forces of death and destruction are not so much physical as they are psychic and psychological. When malice, hate and hard- heartedness prevail, they get channelled as forces of destruction. Where openness, peace and good-heartedness prevail, the forces of life gush forth to regenerate hope and joy. The life force is triumphant when love overcomes fear. Both fear and love are deep mysteries, but the effect of love is to build whereas fear tends to destroy. Love is often the plus factor that helps build character. It helps us to accept and to overcome suffering. It creates lasting bonds and its reach is infinite.

It is true that there is no shortage of destructive elements – forces and people who seek to destroy others and in the process, destroy themselves – but at the same time there are signs of love and life everywhere that are constantly enabling us to overcome setbacks. So let’s not look only at gloom and doom – let’s seek out positivity and happiness. For it is when you seek that you will find what is waiting to be discovered.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using headings and subheadings. Use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary. 
1. Life’s tests are its plus factors.
1.1 Plus factors, such as ovrcmng. suffrng. moulds chrctr.
1.2 Simple hearted see plus factors more readily
1.3 Often a change in focus is req.

2. Nether Springs
2.1 Flow into lonely depressed ppl’s. lives
2.2 Brings peace and patience
2.3 Leads to recovery

3. Life forces v/s death forces
3.1 Forces of destrcn. malice, hate and hardheartedness.
(a) Chanld. through
• Malice
• Hate
• Hard-heartedness
(b) Forces of death and destrcn.
• Less physical
• More psychic of psychological
• Self-destructive by seeking other’s destrcn.
3.2 Forces of life regenerate hope of joy
(a) Prevails where
• Openness
• Peace of good heartedness

4. Love v/s fear
4.1 Love overcomes fear, life force triumphs
4.2 Love builds, fear destroys
4.3 Love builds character
(a) Helps in
• Accepting and overcoming sufferings
• Creating lasting bond
• Infinite reach

5. Conclusion
5.1 Seek positivity and happiness
5.2 Find what is awaiting discovery

Abbreviations used:
1. ovrcmng. – overcoming
2. ppl. – people
3. suffrng. – suffering
4. destrcn. – destruction
5. chrctr. – character
6. req. – required
7. v/s – versus
8. Chanld. – Channelled

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.
Answer: Summary

Life’s tests are its plus factors. Overcoming sufferings is a plus factor, which moulds character. Simple hearted see plus factors readily. However, a change in focus is also required. Nether springs flow into lonely and depressed people’s life, bringing peace and patience and eventually, recovery. Hate, malice, etc. are channelled as forces of destruction. Forces of life generates hope of joy. Life force triumphs when love overcomes fear. Love creates as lasting bond therefore, one should seek positivity and happiness.

Title : Seeking Happiness

Question. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow :

The outcasts were not allowed to mount the platform surrounding the well, because if they were ever to draw water from it, the Hindus of the three upper castes would consider the water polluted. Nor were they allowed access to the nearby brook as their use of it would contaminate the stream. They had no well of their own because it cost a lot of money to dig a well in a hilly town. Perforce they had to collect at the foot of the upper- caste Hindu well and depend on the bounty of some of their superiors to pour water into their pitchers. More often than not there was no upper-caste Hindu present. Most of them were rich enough to get the water-carriers to supply them with plenty of fresh water every morning for their baths and kitchens, and only those came to the well who were either fond of an open-air bath or too poor to pay for the water-carriers’ services. So the outcasts had to wait for a chance to bring some upper- caste Hindu to the well, for luck to decide that he was kind, for Fate to ordain that he had time — to get their pitchers filled with water. They crowded round the well, congested the space below its high brick platform, morning, noon and night, joining their hands in servile humility to every passer-by; cursing their fate, and bemoaning their lot, if they were refused the help they wanted; praying, beseeching and blessing, if some generous soul condescended to listen to them, or to help them.

When Sohini reached the well there were already about ten other outcasts waiting. But there was no one to given them water. She had come as fast as she could to the well, full of fear and anxiety that she would have to wait her turn since she could see from a distance that there was already a crowd. She didn’t feel disappointed so much as depressed to realise that she would be the eleventh to receive water. She had sensed the feeling in her brother’s soul. He was tired. He was thirsty. She had felt like a mother as she issued from her home to fetch water, a mother going out to fetch food and drink for her loved ones at home. Now as she sat in a row with her fellow sufferers, her heart sank. There was no sign of anyone passing that way who could be a possible benefactor. But she was patient. She had in her an inbred fortitude, obvious in her curious reserve, in her docile and peaceful bearing.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes using headings and subheadings. Use recognisable abbreviations, wherever necessary.
1. Outcasts faced caste prejudices
1.1 weren’t allowed to draw water from well or brook
1.2 upper caste Hindus believed they would pollute water

2. Poverty aggrated. their water woes
2.1 no separate well for them
2.2 too poor to afford their own well
2.3 depnd. on bounty of Hindus
2.4 had to wait long

3. Easy access to water for the rich
3.1 rich enged. water carriers
3.2 others drew water directly from well

4. Sohini’s plight
4.1 long que. at well
4.2 her brother thirsty and tired
4.3 upper caste Hindus not sighted
4.4 rsgd. herself to fate

Abbreviations used :
1. weren’t – were not
2. aggrated. – aggravated
3. depnd. – depended
4. enged. – engaged
5. que. – queue
6. rsgd. – resigned

(b) Make a summary of the above passage in notmore than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.
Answer:Title – The Plight of Outcasts


The outcasts totally depended on the mercy of the upper caste Hindus to get water. They were not allowed to use the well or brook. They didn’t even have a separate well. The outcasts had to wait for a gentle person to get water, whereas upper caste

people would get it directly. When Sohini came to the well to get water, there was already a queue. Her brother was thirsty and tired and she was determined to get water so resigned herself to wait, trusting her fate.

Question. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

People tend to amass possessions, sometimes without being aware of doing so. They can have a delightful surprise when they find something useful which they did not know they owned. Those who never have to change house become indiscriminate collectors of what can only be described as clutter. They leave unwanted objects in drawers, cupboards and attics for years in the belief that they may one day need them. Old people also accumulate belongings for two other reasons, lack of physical and mental energy, and sentiment. Things owned for a long time are full of associations with the past, perhaps with the relatives who are dead, and so they gradually acquire a sentimental value.

Some things are collected deliberately in an attempt to avoid wastage. Among these are string and brown paper, kept by thrifty people when a parcel has been opened. Collecting small items can be a mania. A lady cuts out from newspaper sketches of model clothes that she would like to buy if she had money. As she is not rich, the chances are that she will never be able to afford such purchases. It is a harmless habit, but it litters up her desk.

Collecting as a serious hobby is quite different and has many advantages. It provides relaxation for leisure hours, as just looking at one’s treasure is always a joy. One doesn’t have to go out for amusement as the collection is housed at home. Whatever it consists of – stamps, records, first editions of books, China- there is always something to do in connection with it, from finding the right place for the latest addition to verifying facts in reference books. This hobby educates one not only in the chosen subject, but also in general matters which have some bearing on it.

There are other benefits also. One gets to meet like-minded collectors to get advice, compare notes, exchange articles, to show off one’s latest find, etc. So, one’s circle of friends grows. Soon the hobby leads to travelling, perhaps a meeting in another town, possibly a trip abroad in search of a rare specimen, for collectors are not confined to one country. Over the years one may well become an authority on one’s hobby and will probably be asked to give informal talks to little gatherings and then, if successful, to larger audiences.

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary – (minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.
Answer:- Title-Collecting – A Hobby

1. Reasons why old people accu. belongings
1.1 Lack of phy. & mental energy
1.2 Sentiments

2. Collctng. things
2.1 Avoid wastage
2.2 Mania

3. Collctng. as a serious hobby
3.1 Relxn. for leisure hours.
3.2 Amusnt.
3.3 Source of edu.

4. Other benefits of collctng.
4.1 Growth of frnd. circle
4.2 Travelling
4.3 Meeting in another town
4.4 Able to address audience

Abbreviations used :
1. accu. – accumulating
2. phy. – physical
3. Collctng. – Collecting
4. Relxn. – Relaxation
5. Amusnt. – Amusement
6. edu. – education
7. frnd. – friend

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.
Answer: Summary

People unknowingly collect different kind of things. They leave unwanted  objects in drawers and cupboards for years believing that they may use them in the future. The two reasons why old people accumulate belongings are due to the lack of physical and mental energy and sentiment. Collecting small items can be to avoid wastage or it can be a mania. There are many advantages for those who have collecting as a serious hobby. It gives relaxation for leisure hours, amusement and it is a source of education. The other benefits of collecting are: there would be a growth of friend circle, it leads to travelling, meetings in another towns and even one can become an authority on one’s hobby and will be able to address gatherings and audiences.

Question. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow : 

Despite all the research everyone of us catches cold and most of us catch it frequently. Our failure to control one of the commonest of all ailments sometimes seems ridiculous. Medical science regularly practises transplant surgery and has rid whole countries of such killing diseases as Typhus and the Plague. But the problem of common cold is unusually difficult and much has yet to be done to solve it.

It is known that cold is caused by one of a number of viral infections that affect the lining of the nose and other passages leading to the lungs but the confusing variety of viruses makes study and remedy very difficult. It was shown in 1960 that many typical colds in adults are caused by one or the other of a family of viruses known as rhinoviruses, yet there still remain many colds for which no virus has as yet been isolated.

There is also the difficulty that because they are so much smaller than the bacteria which cause many other infections, viruses cannot be seen with ordinary microscopes. Nor can they be cultivated easily in the bacteriologist’s laboratory, since they only grow within the living cells of animals or plants. An important recent step forward, however, is the development of the technique of tissue culture, in which bits of animal tissue are enabled to go on living and to multiply independently of the body. This has greatly aided virus research and has led to the discovery of a large number of viruses. Their existence had previously been not only unknown but even unsuspected.

The fact that we can catch cold repeatedly creates another difficulty. Usually a virus strikes only once and leaves the victim immune to further attacks. Still we do not gain immunity from cold. Why? It may possibly be due to the fact that while other viruses get into the blood stream where anti-bodies can oppose them, the viruses causing cold attack cells only on the surface. Or it may be that immunity from one of the many different viruses does not guarantee protection from all the others. It seems, therefore, that we are likely to have to suffer colds for some time yet.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title.
Answer:Title : Common Cold A Threat

1. Fighting Common Cold
1.1 Cold common
1.2 Typhus and plague eradicat’d
1.3 Common cold diff. to solve

2. Causes of Cold
2.1 Viral infection
2.2 Viruses — rhinoviruses
2.3 Affect lining of the nose

3. Research
3.1 Dev. tech. of tissue culture
3.2 Aided virus research
3.3 Existence previously not known

4. No protection
4.1 no imm. from cold
4.2 cold cells attack on surface
4.3 likely to suffer from cold

Abbreviations used :
1. eradicat’d – eradicated
2. diff. – difficult
3. Dev. – Development
4. tech. – technique
5. imm. – immunity

(b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made.
Answer: Summary

Cold is a common ailment, which everyone suffers at some point of life. Scientists have got rid of many diseases but the problem of common cold still exists. It is caused by viral infection, which affects the lining of the nose and other passages. Many developments have been made on tissue culture to discover large number of viruses but their existence is still unknown. The virus of cold attacks on the surface or from the immunity of many different viruses. There it is difficult to give guarantee protection to it and we are likely to suffer from cold.

Question. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow : 

The most alarming of man’s assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air, earth, rivers, and sea with lethal materials. This pollution is for the most part irrevocable; the chain of evil it initiates is for the most part irreversible. In this contamination of the environment chemicals are the sinister partners of radiation in changing the very nature of the world; radiation released through nuclear explosions into the air, comes to the earth in rain, lodges into the soil, enters the grass or corn, or wheat grown there and reaches the bones of a human being, there to ramain until his death. Similarly, chemicals sprayed on crops lie long in soil, entering living organisms, passing from one to another in a chain of poisoning and death. Or they pass by underground streams until they emerge and combine into new forms that kill vegetation, sicken cattle, and harm those who drink from once pure wells.

It took hundreds of millions of years to produce the life that now inhabits the earth and reached a stage of adjustment and balance with its surroundings. The environment contained elements that were hostile as well as supporting. Even within the light of the sun, there were short wave radiations with power to injure. Given time, life has adjusted and a balance reached. For time is the essential ingredient, but in the modern world there is no time.

The rapidity of change and the speed with which new situations are created follow the heedless pace of man rather than the deliberate pace of nature. Radiation is no longer the bombardment of cosmic rays; it is now the unnatural creation of man’s tampering with the atom. The chemicals to which life is asked to make adjustments are no longer merely calcium and silica and copper and all the rest of the minerals washed out of the rocks and carried in the rivers to the sea; they are the synthetic creations of man’s inventive mind, brewed in his laboratories, and having no counterparts in nature.

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage make notes on it using heading and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviation (wherever necessary-minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply a title to it. 
Answer: Title : The Ailing Environment

1. Contamination of Environment
1.1 Lethal mat. in air, earth, rivers & sea
1.2 Initiates evil chain of pollution
1.3 Chems. and rad. create havoc
1.4 Reaches bones of humans

2. Hundreds of millions of years
2.1 Life reached stg. of adjust.
2.2 balance with surround.
2.3 no time for modern world

3. Radiation
3.1 no longer the bombt. of cosmic rays
3.2 unnatural creation of man
3.2.1 tampering with atom
3.3 natural chems. replaced by synthc. chems.
3.3.1 made in labs.
3.3.2 no counterparts in nature.

Abbreviations used :
1. mat. – material
2. Chems. – Chemicals
3. rad. – radiation
4. & – and
5. stg. – stage
6. adjust. – adjustment
7. surround. – surroundings
8. bombt. – bombardment
9. synthc. – synthetic
10. labs. – laboratories

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.
Answer: Summary

Lethal materials in air, earth, rivers and sea contaminates the environment, initiating an irreversible evil chain of pollution. Chemicals and radiation create havoc in contaminating the environment. They reach human bones through different mediums.

Life reached the stage of adjustment and balance with the surroundings in hundreds of millions of years. Unfortunately, the modern world does not have much time.

Bombardment of cosmic rays no longer causes radiation, it is the unnatural creation of man.

Question. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow :

There is nothing more frustrating than when you sit down at your table to study with the most sincere of intentions and instead of being able to finish the task at hand, you find your thoughts wandering. However, there are certain techniques that you can use to enhance your concentration. “Your concentration level depends on a number of factors,” says Sonali Ghosh, a social counsellor. “In order to develop your concentration span, it is necessary to examine various facts of your physical and internal environment,” she adds.

To begin with, one should attempt to create the physical environment that is conducive to focussed thought. Whether it is the radio, TV or your noisy neighbours, identify the factors that make it difficult for you to focus. For instance, if you live in a very noisy neighbourhood, you could try to plan your study hours in a nearby library.

She disagrees with the notion that people can concentrate or study in an environment with distractions like a loud television, blaring music, etc. “If you are distracted when you are attempting to focus, your attention and retention powers do not work at optimum levels,” cautions Ghosh, “Not more than two of your senses should be activated at the same time,” she adds. What that means is that music that sets your feet tapping is not the ideal accompaniment to your books.

Also, do not place your study table or desk in front of a window. “While there is no cure for a mind that wants to wander, one should try and provide as little stimulus as possible. Looking out of a window when you are trying to concentrate will invariably send your mind on a tangent,” says Ghosh.

The second important thing, she says, is to establish goals for oneself instead of setting a general target and then trying to accomplish what you can in a haphazard fashion. It is very important to decide what you have to finish in a given span of time. The human mind recognises fixed goals and targets and appreciates schedules more than random thoughts. Once your thoughts and goals are in line, a focussed system will follow.

She recommends that you divide your schedule into study and recreation hours. When you study, choose a mix of subjects that you enjoy and dislike and save the former for the last so that you have something to look forward to. For instance, if you enjoy verbal skill tests more than mathematical problems, then finish Maths first. Not only will you find yourself working harder, you will have a sense of achievement when you wind up.

Try not to sit for more than 40 minutes at a stretch. Take a very short break to make a cup of tea or listen to a song and sit down again. Under no circumstances, should one sit for more than one and a half hours. Short breaks build your concentration and refresh your mind. However, be careful not to overdo the relaxation. It may have undesired effects.

More than anything else, do not get disheartened. Concentration is merely a matter of disciplining the mind. It comes with practice and patience and does not take very long to become a habit for life.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
Answer:Title : Developing Concentration

1. Hurdles to Conc.
1.1 Radio, TV
1.2 Wandering thoughts
1.3 Noisy envirnmt.

2. Technique of enhncmnt.
2.1 Avoid distracting factors
2.2 Study table away from window
2.3 Establish specific goals, time mngnt.

3. Ultimate Help
3.1 Plan study & recreational hrs.
3.2 Don’t get disheartened
3.3 Discpln. the mind

Abbreviations used :
1. Conc. – Concentration
2. envirnmt. – Environment
3. enhncmnt – Enhancement
4. mngnt. – Management.
5. hrs. – hours
6. Don’t – Do not
7. Discpln. – Discipline

(b) Write a summary of the above in 80 words.
Answer: Summary

Mostly we have wandering thoughts due to radio, TV and noisy environment. We should find out the facts of our physical and internal environment which disturb our concentration. We can concentrate or study only when distractions are avoided. We should establish our goals and try to achieve them. Study and recreational hours should be well planned and adhered to. It is important to discipline the mind and not get disheartened. Concentration is most essential to study and achieve our goals in life.

Question. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow :

(1) I remember my childhood as being generally happy and can recall experiencing some of the most carefree times of my life. But I can also remember, even more vividly, moments of being deeply frightened. As a child, I was truly terrified of the dark and getting lost. These fears were very real and caused me some extremely uncomfortable moments.

(2) Maybe it was the strange way things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that scared me so much. There was never total darkness, but a street light or passing car lights made clothes hung over a chair take on the shape of an unknown beast. Out of the corner of my eye, I saw curtains move when there was no breeze. A tiny creak in the floor would sound a hundred times louder than in the daylight and my imagination would take over, creating burglars and monsters. Darkness always made me feel helpless. My heart would pound and I would lie very still so that ‘the enemy’ wouldn’t discover me.

(3) Another childhood fear of mine was that I would get lost, especially on the way home from school. Every morning, I got on the school bus right near my home – that was no problem. After school, though, when all the buses were lined up along the curve, I was terrified that I would get on the wrong one and be taken to some unfamiliar neighbourhood. I would scan the bus for the faces of my friends, make sure that the bus driver was the same one that had been there in the morning, and even then ask the others over and over again to be sure, I was in the right bus. On school or family trips to an amusement park or a museum, I wouldn’t let the leaders out of my sight. And of course, I was never very adventurous when it came to taking walks or hikes because I would go only where I was sure I would never get lost.

(4) Perhaps, one of the worst fears I had as a child was that of not being liked or accepted by others. First of all, I was quite shy. Secondly, I worried constantly about my looks, thinking people wouldn’t like me because I was too fat or wore braces. I tried to wear ‘the right clothes’ and had intense arguments with my mother over the importance of wearing flats instead of saddled shoes to school. Being popular was very important to me then and the fear of not being liked was a powerful one.

(5) One of the processes of evolving from a child to an adult is being able to recognise and overcome our fears. I have learnt that darkness does not have to take on a life of its own, that others can help me when I am lost and that friendliness and sincerity will encourage people to like me. Understanding the things that scared us as children helps to cope with our lives as adults.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes using headings and sub- headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary.
1. Recalling childhood moments
1.1. Happy & carefree
1.2. Terrified of darkness & getting lost

2. Childhood fears
2.1. Feeling helpless in the dark
2.1.1. Strange shadows – an unknown beast
2.1.2. Moving curtains
2.1.3. Creaking sounds
2.1.4. Imagining burglars & monsters
2.1.5. Lying still with pounding heart
2.2. Fear of getting lost (on the way back home)
2.2.1. Scanning school buses – familiar faces, same driver
2.2.2. Re-confirming in the bus
2.2.3. Not letting leaders out of sight
2.2.4. Avoiding adventurous acts.
2.2.5. Going with surety of not being lost
2.3. Fear of not being liked
2.3.1. Quite shy
2.3.2. Worried about looks – fat, wore braces, clothes
2.3.3. Wearing right clothes
2.3.4. Flat vs. saddled shoes for school
2.3.5. Imp. of popularity

3. Coping with childhood fears as an adult
3.1. Undg. evolution process – child to adult
3.2. Recognising & overcoming fears
3.3. Accepting help from others
3.4. Role of friendliness & sincerity
3.5. Undg. things that scared

Abbreviations used :
1. & – and
2. acts. – activities
3. vs. – versus
4. Imp. – Importance
5. Undg. – Understanding

(b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title. 
Answer:Title : Recalling Childhood Fears as an Adult


My childhood was generally happy and had carefree moments. However, darkness scared me with its shadows, unexpected movement of curtains and creaking sounds. It made me feel helpless and I used to lie still, with a pounding heart. I was scared of getting lost. Before boarding my school bus, I scanned it for familiar faces. I was shy and afraid of not being liked by others. As I grew from a child to an adult, I realised that understanding things that scared us as a child helped in coping with life.

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