Please refer to Chapter 5 Children and Women in Sports Notes Class 12 Physical Education and questions with solutions below. These revision notes and important examination questions have been prepared based on the latest Physical Education books for Class 12. You can go through the questions and solutions below which will help you to get better marks in your examinations. You can refer to Class 12 Physical Education Notes provided by us for all chapters in your NCERT Book for Class 12 Physical Education.
Class 12 Physical Education Notes Chapter 5 Children and Women in Sports
MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN
♦ Motor Development : Motor development involves underlying biological environment and task demands influencing both motor performance and movement abilities of individual from infancy through older adulthood. It goes on all the time from conception until late teens. At the same time, the nervous system matures for any movement. The brain, nerves and muscles have to work together.
♦ Stages of Motor Development :
(i) Early childhood (2 to 6 years)
(ii) Middle childhood (7 to 10 years)
(iii) Late childhood (11 to 12 years)
♦ Obstacles of Motor Development : Everyone is different and develops at different rates. Abnormalities occur in the muscles, joints and nervous system. These abnormalities include health issues, hearing impairments, heart abnormalities, obesity, etc. It means the child is not doing the things what he/
she should be doing at his/her maturity level.
FACTORS AFFECTING MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
♦ Factors affecting motor development : Obesity, Postural deformities, Sensory impairments, Biological factors, Environmental factors, Nutritional Opportunities and Physical activities.
COMMON POSTURAL DEFORMITIES
♦ Some Common Postural Deformities are :
(i) Knock Knee : Knock Knee is a postural deformity in which both the knees touch or overlap each other in the normal standing position. Due to this deformity, an individual usually faces difficulty during walking.
(ii) Flat Foot : It is a deformity in which there is no arc in the foot and the foot is completely flat.
The individual faces problem in standing, walking, jumping and running.
(iii) Round Shoulder : It is a postural deformity in which the shoulders are drawn forward, the head is extended and the chin points forward.
(iv) Lordosis : It is the inward curvature of spine. It is an increased forward curve in the lumbar region. It creates problems in standing and walking.
(v) Kyphosis : It is a deformity of the spine in which there is an increase of exaggeration of a backward curve or a decrease of a forward curve. It is also called round upper back.
(vi) Bow legs : It is a deformity just the reverse of the knock knee position. In fact, if there is a wide gap between the knees, the deformity can be observed easily when individual walks or runs.
(vii) Scoliosis : It is a postural defect in which there is one large lateral curve extending through the whole length of the spine, or there may be two curves. This type of deformity is also called as curve.
CORRECTIVE MEASURES FOR POSTURAL DEFORMITIES
♦ Postural Deformities : There are two types of postural deformities i.e., functional and structural. In functional deformities, only the soft tissues i.e., the muscle and the ligaments are affected. In this case, correction of postural deformities is possible through various physical activities
♦ Exercises for Kyphosis :
(i) Swimming, Bench-press, Push-ups are beneficial as remedial measures.
(ii) In corner exercises, the patient stands facing a corner with one hand on each wall, arms at the shoulder level and elbow at 90° from this position, the body moves forward mainly from the angle joint. This is a very good exercise for stretching the pectoral muscles.
(iii) Lying on the back on a narrow bench with ring weight hanging from elbows, the arms may flex to avoid any stress to elbows.
(iv) Holding a towel or stick in a wide hand grips with arm extended above the hand and shoulder gives a good stretch to pectoral muscle and also strengthens posterior neck.
♦ Exercises for Flat Foot :
(i) By rising on the toes, by climbing stairs, by cycling.
(ii) The emphasis should be upon the exercises involving the flexion, foot and angle flexion.
(iii) Exercise like sitting on a chair : grasp a pencil under the toes of one foot and try to write the alphabets with long strokes.
(iv) One should wear special shoes properly fitted with arch support made by orthopaedic centre.
♦ Exercises for Bow Legs :
(i) Walking by bending the toes inwards.
(ii) Walking for some distance on the inner edge of the feet.
(iii) Performing Ardha matsyendrasana and Garudasana.
♦ Exercises for Knock Knees :
(i) Use of walking calipers.
(ii) Horse riding is the best option for this deformity.
(iii) Keeping a pillow between the knees and standing erect for some time.
(iv) Performing Padmasana and Gomukhasana.
(v) Seated quadriceps contraction and hamstring curls.
♦ Exercises for Round Shoulders :
(i) Keep your tips of fingers on your shoulders and encircle your elbows in clockwise and anticlockwise direction for some time.
(ii) Hold the horizontal bar for some time regularly.
(iii) Perform Chakrasana and Dhanurasana for some time.
♦ Exercises for Lordosis :
(i) Lunge forward with knee on a mat. Take position of the foot beyond knee. Place both hands on knee. Straighten hips of rear leg by pushing hips forward and hold stretch. Repeat with opposite side.
(ii) Sit on a chair with feet wide apart. Bend and position your shoulders between knees. Then reach to the floor under back of chair. Hold this position for some duration.
(iii) Lie in prone position on the floor. Keep the palms of your hands on the floor according to shoulders’ width. Push torso up keeping pelvis on floor. Hold this position for some time.
(iv) Sit down with knees extended, feet together and hands at sides. After that bend forward,touching the fingers to toes. Hold this position for some time. Then come back and repeat.
♦ Exercises for Scoliosis :
(i) To swim by breast stroke technique.
(ii) Hanging from horizontal bar.
(iii) Holding the horizontal bar with your hands and swing your body to left and right side.
(iv) Bending exercise should be performed in opposite side of ‘ C ‘ shaped curve.
SPORTS PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN IN INDIA
♦ Sports Participation of Women in India : Sports participation of women means women’s participation in the field of sports.
♦ Reasons for less Participation of Women in Sports : Lack of fitness, legislation, education among women, interest among spectators, women coaches, personal safety, facilities for women along with male dominated culture.
♦ Effect of Physique and Body Composition on Sports Performance : In the high jump, long jump and triple jump, height is also an important factor because the centre of gravity of the body is higher in men in comparison to women.
♦ Motor Skills and Athletic Ability : Males are considered to be stronger, possess greater muscular and cardiovascular endurance and more proficient in almost all motor skills. The number of anatomical, physiological and mechanical reasons are the reasons for low performance in females.