Please refer to Developing Psychological Skills Class 12 Psychology Important Questions given below. These solved questions for Meeting Life Challenges have been prepared based on the latest CBSE, NCERT and KVS syllabus and books issued for the current academic year. We have provided important examination questions for Class 12 Psychology all chapters.
Class 12 Psychology Developing Psychological Skills Important Questions
Very Short Answer Questions
Question. Explain ‘encoding’ in the communication process.
Ans. Encoding in the communication process involves taking ideas, giving them meaning and putting them in message forms. For example, while taking an examination you realize that you have not brought your pen and you ask your friend for it, i.e., encode a message that you need a pen.
Question. Differentiate between hearing and listening.
Ans. Hearing is a biological activity that involves reception of a message through sensory channels. It is only a part of listening. Listening is a process that involves reception,attention, assignment of meaning and the listener response to the message presented.
Question. What do you understand by the term skill?
Ans. Skill is defined as proficiency or dexterity that is acquired or developed through training and experience.
Question. What is paraphrasing?
Explain the term paraphrasing in human communication.
Ans. Paraphrasing involves the ability of a counsellor to reflect on what the client says and feels using different words. Human communication becomes effective if the counsellor understands and is again able to relate in his words what feelings and emotions the client has described.
Question. Differentiate between verbal and non-verbal communication.
Ans. Verbal communication involves using a language while non-verbal communication involves gestures, postures, eye-contact, clothing style and body movement.
Question. State two skills of an effective psychologist.
Ans. Skills can be defined as the proficiency or dexterity that is acquired or developed through training and experience. Skills of an effective psychologist are:
(i) General skills: Ability to listen and be empathetic, to develop respect for or interest in others’ culture and experience. These skill include personal and intellectual skill.
(ii) Observational skills: A psychologist can begin observations by carefully scrutinizing the physical setting to capture the atmosphere.
Short Answer Questions
Question. What are the different types of interview questions?
Ans. The different types of interview questions are:
(i) Direct Question: They are explicit and require specific information. For example,“Where did you last work?”
(ii) Open-ended Question: They are less direct and specify only the topic. For example,“How happy were you with your job on the whole?”
(iii) Close-ended Question: They provide response alternatives, narrowing the response variations. For example, “Do you think knowledge of a product or communication skill is more important for a salesperson?”
(iv) Bipolar Question: It is a form of close-ended question. It requires a yes or no response. For example, “Would you like to work for the company?”
(v) Leading Question: It encourages a response in favour of a specific answer. For example, “Wouldn’t you say you are in favour of having officer’s union in the company?”
(vi) Mirror Question: They are intended to get a person to reflect on what she or he had said and expand on it. For example, you said “I work so hard but I am unable to get success.”
Question. Explain non-verbal communication.
Ans. It is possible to communicate effectively even without using verbal language:
– The language that people exchange without using words is called body language
– Use of gesture, posture, eye contact, clothing style, body movement and facial expressions are some examples of body language. All these together form a cluster.
– These non-verbal acts are symbolic and communication is effective only when we use these.
– A person’s background and past pattern of behavior are considered important in analyzing body language.
– Body language can encourage and discourage the conversation.
– For example, crossing arms over the chest may suggest that a person likes to keep aloof. But, crossed arms accompanied by an erect posture, tightened body muscles, a set clenched jaw and a narrowing of the eyes are likely to communicate anger.
Question. What are psychological tests and what skills are required by psychologists to use these and where are they used?
Ans. Psychological tests involve psychological assessment, evaluation and problem solving with individuals and groups, organization, and the community. Psychologists have always been interested in understanding individual differences. Psychological tests have been devised and are primarily used for the determination and analysis of individual differences in general intelligence, differential aptitudes, educational achievement,vocational fitness, personality, social attitudes, and various non- intellectual characteristics.Psychologists study these differences based on factors such as occupation, age, gender,education, culture, etc. While using psychological tests an attitude of objectivity, scientific orientation, and standardized interpretation must be kept in mind. For example, in organizational and personnel work, in business and industry, where specialized tests are used to select individuals for specific jobs, it is essential to use actual performance records or ratings as a criterion for establishing validity of a test.
Question. Describe the stages through which an interview proceeds.
What is the typical format of a counselling interview?
Ans. The three stages of a counselling interview are
(i) Opening of the interview: It involves establishing rapport between two communicators.The purpose is to make the interviewee comfortable.
(ii) Body of the interview: It is the heart of the process. In this stage, the interviewer asks questions in an attempt to generate information and data that are required for the purpose. The interviewer prepares a set of questions, also called a schedule, for different domains or categories s/he wants to cover. For example, the questions used in job interview are nature of organization last worked for, satisfaction with past job, etc.
(iii) Closing the interview: At this stage, the interviewer summarises what s/he has been able to gather and or offers comments. When the interview is ending, the interviewer gives a chance to the interviewee to ask questions or offer comments.
Question. Mention some tips to improve your listening skills.
Ans. (i) Listening requires a person to be attentive.
(ii) The person should be paitent, non-judgemental and yet have the capacity to analyse and respond.
(iii) Recognise that both the sender as well as the receiver have equal responsibility in making effective communication.
(iv) Refrain from forming an early judgment about information that is being communicated. Be open to all ideas.
(v) Be a patient listener. Do not be in a hurry to respond.
(vi) Avoid ego speak. That is, do not talk only about what you want to talk about. Give consideration also to others and to what they say.
(vii) Be careful to the emotional responses which certain words are likely to bring about.
(viii) Be aware that your posture affects your listening.
(ix) Control distractions.
(x) If in doubt, try to paraphrase. Also, check with the sender whether s/he has been correctly understood by you.
(xi) Visualise what is being said. That is, try to translate the message in the form of a concrete action.
Question. Describe the process of counselling.
Ans. (i) Counselling involves responding to the thoughts, feelings and actions of the clients.
(ii) Counselling involves a basic acceptance of the clients’ perceptions and feelings without any evaluative standards.
(iii) The interaction in the process of counseling should be confidential and private.
(iv) Counselling is provided by a trained psychologist. An untrained person may unintentionally cause more harm than good.
(v) Counselling is voluntary in which help is given by the counselor and the client approaches the counsellor.
(vi) Counsellor and clients both transmit and receive verbal and non-verbal messages during the process.
Long Answer Questions
Question. To be an effective counsellor, it is mandatory that s/he undergoes professional training.Do you agree with this statement? Give reasons in support of your arguments.
Ans. Persons who have received practical training under expert supervision can do counselling, and not everybody. An untrained person may unintentionally cause more harm than any good.
Question. Identify an aspect of your friend’s personal life that s/he wants to change. As a student of psychology, think of specific ways in which you can devise a programme to help your friend modify or solve her/his problem.
Ans. My friend drank large amount of alcohol regularly and relied on it to help him face difficult situations. Eventually, the drinking interfered with his social behaviour and ability to think and work. He has built up a tolerance for alcohol and needed to drink even greater amounts to feel its effects. He experienced withdrawal responses when he stopped drinking. It had damaged his social relationships and career. It also seriously damaged his physical health.His maladaptive behaviour resulting from regular and consistent use of substance was reduced by using techniques of behaviour therapy. Aversive conditioning was used by repeated association of undesired response of drinking with an aversive consequence.
For example, a drug was mixed with alcohol which gave rise to a vomiting sensation when he next time consumed it and this thus led to his leaving of alcohol. With repeated pairings of the vomiting sensation associated with the smell of alcohol as an aversive consequence led my friend give up alcohol.
Question. Define communication. Which component of the communication process is most important? Justify your answer with relevant examples.
Ans. Communication is a conscious or unconscious, intentional or unintentional process in which feelings and ideas are expressed as verbal and/or non-verbal messages that are sent, received and comprehended.
The various components of the communication process are:
(i) Encoding: Encoding in the communication process involves taking ideas, giving them meaning and putting them in message forms. For example, while taking an examination you realize that you have not brought your pen and you ask your friend for it i.e. encode a message that you need a pen.
(ii) Channel: After the message is encoded it is passed through a channel and our senses such as eyes, ears, tongue, nose or skin become active.
(iii) Decoding: After the message is encoded, passed through a channel it is decoded wherein the message is translated into understandable forms. For example, you may say that you heard a bell or an object feels soft.
(iv) Speaking: This involves the use of language which the communicator should use appropriately.
(v) Listening: Academic success, employment achievement and personal happiness depend upon your ability to listen effectively. Listening requires a person to be attentive. S/he should be patient, non-judgmental and yet have the capacity to analyze and respond.
(vi) Reception: During reception, in addition to using the hearing mechanism, people listen through their visual system. They observe a person’s facial expressions, posture,
movement and appearance.
(vii) Attention: Normally your attention is divided between what you are attempting to listen to, and what is happening around you, and what is going on in your mind. For example, while watching a movie, a person in front of you is constantly whispering to his friend or you are worried about your forthcoming examination. Thus, your attention is divided and is pulled in different directions.
(viii) Paraphrasing: Paraphrasing involves the ability of a counsellor to reflect on what the client says and feels using different words. Human communication becomes effective if the counsellor understands and is again able to relate in his words what feelings and emotions the client has described.