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Important Questions of Lifelines of National Economy Class 10
Case Based Questions
Read the case/source given and answer the following questions.
The distribution pattern of the Railway network in the country has been largely influenced by Physiographic, economic and administrative factors. The Northern plains with their vast level land, high population density and rich agricultural resources provided the most favourable condition for their growth. However, a large number of rivers requiring construction of bridges across their wide beds posed some obstacles. In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracts are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels. The Himalayan mountainous regions too are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines due to high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities. Likewise, it was difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plain of Western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand. The contiguous stretch of Sahyadri could be crossed only through gaps or passes (Ghats). In recent times, the development of the Konkan railway along the West coast has facilitated the movement of passengers and goods in this most important economic region of India.
It has also faced a number of problem such as sinking of track in some stretches and landslides.
(i) Which factors are largely responsible to influence the railway network in India? Write any one merit of railways.
(ii) Why is it difficult to construct railway lines in the Peninsular region and Himalayan region?
(iii) Although, the railways have become more important in our national economy still this transport is facing a number of problems.Why? State any two reasons.
Answer : Factors which are largely responsible to influence the railway network in India are physiographic, economic and administrative factors. An advantage or merit of railways is that they make it possible to conduct many activities like business, sightseeing, pilgrimage along with transportation of goods over longer distances.
(ii) It is difficult to construct railway lines in the Peninsular region and Himalayan region because ! The Peninsular region and the Himalayan region are hilly and mountainous regions. Peninsular region has undulating topography where railway tracts are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels. ! On the other hand the Himalayas have high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities.
(iii) It is true that railways have become more important in our national economy but still this transport is facing a number of problems which are ! Many passengers travel by trains without tickets. This incurs heavy loss of rail budget. ! People stop the trains, pull the chain unnecessarily and this causes heavy damage to the railway. 2. Read the cases/sources given and answer the following questions. Source A Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways The government has launched a major road development project linking Delhi–Kolkata– Chennai–Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane Super Highways. The North–South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) and Kanniyakumari (Tamil Nadu), and East-West Corridor connecting Silchar (Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat) are part of this project. The major objective of these Super Highways is to reduce the time and distance between the mega cities of India. These highway projects are being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).
(i) What is the Golden Quadrilateral? To what extent do you agree that Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways are important for our country? Give only one aspect.
Answer : Golden Quadrilateral comprises of the National Highways connecting Delhi-Mumbai-Chennai- Kolkata by a 6-lane Super Highway. I agree with that Golden Quadrilateral SuperHighways are important for our country because these highways reduce time and distance between mega cities of India. Source B National Highways National Highways link extreme parts of the country. These are the primary road systems and are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD). A number of major National Highways run in North-South and East–West directions. The historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg is called National Highway No. 1, between Delhi and Amritsar.
(ii) To what extent do you agree that India needs a number of National Highways? Give only one reason. Discuss the role of National Highways.
Answer : I agree with that India needs a number ofNational Highways because India is a vast country and National Highways link extreme parts of the country with each other. Role of National Highways is ! National Highways link important parts of the country like state capitals and commercial sectors. ! They enable fast and efficient movement of goods in areas connected to them. Source C State Highways Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as State Highways. These roads are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD) in State and Union Territories.
(iii) Evaluate the importance of the State Highways.
Answer : Importance of the State Highways is ! State Highways are constructed within a state to provide better connectivity of roads and places. ! These highways link a state capital with different district headquarters.
Read the case/source given and answer questions that follow by choosing the correct option.
Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India. Railways also make it possible for people to conduct multifarious activities like business, sightseeing, pilgrimage along with transportation of goods over longer distances. Apart from an important means of transport the Indian Railways have been a great integrating force for more than 150 years. Railways in India bind the economic life of the country as well as accelerate the development of the industry and agriculture. The Indian Railway is now reorganised into 16 zones. The distribution pattern of the Railway network in the country has been largely influenced by physiographic, economic and administrative factors. The Northern plains with their vast levell and, high population density and rich agricultural resources provided the most favorable condition for their growth. However, a large number of rivers requiring construction of bridges across their wide beds posed some obstacles. In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracts are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels.
Question. Which of the following factors are responsible for distribution pattern of railways network in the country? Identify the correct option:
(a) Topographical factors
(b) Economic and administrative factors
(c) Social factors
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (d) The distribution pattern of railway network is influenced by topographical, economic and administrative factors.
Question. Assertion (A) Rail Transport is the most convenient means of transportation in the Northern Plains. Reason (R) The Northern Plains are densely populated, which enables the maximum number of people to utilise this means of transport. Codes
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and Rare true, but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true, but R is false
(d) A is false, but R is true
Ans. (a) Rail Transport is the most convenient means of transportation in the Northern Plains because the Northern plains are densely populated which enables maximum number of people to utilise this means of transport. Hence, both assertion and reason statements justify each other.
Question. When was the first railway line opened in India? Choose the correct option from the following.
Ans. (c) Railways were first introduced to India in 1853, when a line was constructed from Mumbai to Thane covering a distance of 34 km.
Question. Why Indian railway network is mostly concentrated in Ganga Plains? Choose the most suitable option:
(a) Due to concentration of Industries.
(b) Due to topographical uniformity and high density of population.
(c) Due to high agricultural production.
(d) Due to lack of economic opportunities.
Ans. (b) Indian railway network is mostly concentrated in Ganga Plains due to their topographical uniformity, high population density and rich agricultural resources.
Question. Why is the Indian Railways called the lifeline of the country? With reference to the above context, infer the appropriate option.
(a) Railways in India bind the economic life of the country.
(b) It is the largest public undertaking in the country.
(c) Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India.
(d) All of the above
Question. Why is it essential to develop a unigauge system of railways in our country? Identify the correct option.
(a) It will lead to reduction in trans-shipment.
(b) Because it has larger capacity.
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) It will bring administrative convenience.
Ans. (c) It is essential to develop unigauge system of railways in our country as this system of railways has larger capacity, higher speed, cheaper transportation and reduction in trans-shipment.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. What is the full form of NMCC?
Ans. National Manufacturing Competitiveness council. Related Theory NMCC has been set up to increase productivity of manufacturers by incorporating appropriate policy interventions.
Question. Suggest any one way to promote the jute textile industry in India.
Ans. The jute textile industry can be improved by promoting jute packaging/jute products as environment friendly, biodegradable products and viable alternative to synthetic fibres.
Question. Which industry is an example of joint sector industry?
Ans. Oil India Limited is a joint sector industry. Related Theory Joint sector Industry are industries jointly owned by state and individual industrialists. They’re an example of Public-private partnership.
Question. Name the only industry which is self reliant in its value chain.
Ans. Textile industry is the only industry to be selfreliant and complete in the value chain – from raw material to the final products etc.
Question. What is a basic industry?
Ans. An industry which supply its products or raw materials to manufacture other goods is called a basic industry. Example-Iron and steel industry. Explanation: Basic industries are also known as key industries. For example, aluminum smelting, copper smelting.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. How has the world been converted into a global village? Explain.
Ans. The world has been converted into a global village with the help of efficient and fast moving transport and communication facilities in the following ways ! Daily flights to different countries and improved technology to develop fast means of transportation has connected the countries. ! Computer and internet facilities supported by satellite services have made the world a small village wherein an information can be reached at almost instantly. ! Every country is well-linked with the rest of the world through various means of transport and communication. ! Means of transportation such as railways, airways, waterways and means of communication such as newspapers, radio, television, cinema, internet, etc have been contributing to its socio-economic progress in many ways.
Question. What has necessitated the need for transport? Is it right to say that efficient means of transport are prerequisites for fast development? Justify. Or ‘‘Efficient means of transport are pre-requisites for fast development of the country.’’ Support the statement with examples.
Ans. The need for transport has been necessitated due to the need for movement of goods and services from their supply locations to demand locations or market. Some people are engaged in facilitating these movements. These are known to be traders who make the products come to the consumers by transportation. Efficient means of transport are prerequisite for fast development because more development of goods and services are not enough. The goods need to be transported from one place to another in proper time for their distribution and consumption.
Question. State the ways by which means of transport and communication help the growth of industries in India.
Ans. The ways by which means of transport and communication help the growth of industries in India are ! Transport facilities are required to transport raw materials from their source region to industrial locations. ! Final products from industries also require transport facilities for their transportation to market. ! Communication lines supply required information about various industries. ! Means of transport and communication also help in reduction of regional imbalances resulting in balanced regional development.
Question. “Roadways have an edge over Railways.” Support the statement with examples.
Ans. Roadways still have an edge over the railways in India because ! Construction cost of roads is much lower than railway lines. ! Roads can be constructed easily in hilly terrains and undulating topography than railways. ! Roadways act as a feeder to other modes of transport, as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports. ! Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances. ! Road transport provides door-to-door service thus, the cost of loading and unloading is much lower.
Question. “Distribution of roads is not uniform in India.” Support the statement with examples.
Ans. It is true that the distribution of roads is not uniform in India. For example, ! Density of roads (length of roads per 100 square km of area) varies from Jammu and Kashmir (UT), which has the lowest density of road to Kerala, which has the highest density of roads in the country. ! The density of road is high in most of the Northern states and major Southern states. It is low in the Himalayan region, North-Eastern region, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan due to their topography. ! Nature of terrain and the level of economic development are the main determinants of density of roads. Construction of roads is easy and cheaper in the plain areas while it is difficult and costly in hilly and plateau areas.
Question. Why are metalled roads better than unmetalled roads? What is the role of border roads and national highways in transportation?
Explain the importance of ‘Border Roads’ for India.
Ans. Metalled roads are better than unmetalled roads because they have a waterproof coating on their upper surface, this makes them usable in all seasons. On the other hand, unmetalled roads are difficult to use in the rainy season, as their upper surface becomes uneven due to absorption of rain water. Importance of border roads is ! They have improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain. ! These roads help in the economic development of the border areas of the country. Role of National Highways is ! National Highways link important parts of the country like state capitals and commercial centres. ! They enable fast and efficient movement of goods in areas connected to them.
Question. “Rail transport suffers from certain problems in India.” Support the statement with examples.
Ans. Rail transport suffers from certain problems which are ! The infrastructure of railways is poor. For example, the tracks are old and outdated which cause many serious railway accidents. This also leads speed reduction and cause delay in arrival of trains on stations. ! Another major problem that is being faced in India is that a large number of passengers travel without purchasing tickets. Indian railways have to bear a huge loss every year on account of travelling without tickets. ! The incidence of railway accidents in our country is greater as compared to other countries of the world. Accidents occur due to the errors and negligence of the employees.
Question. Explain any two merits and two demerits of pipelines transport.
Ans. Merits of pipelines transport are
(i) There are no trans-shipment losses or delays in transportation of materials.
(ii) Their construction has made inland locations of refineries like Barauni and Mathura and gas based fertiliser plants viable. Demerits of pipelines transport are
(i) Initial costs of laying pipelines are very high, particularly oil and gas pipelines which have to be laid underground.
(ii) Leakage in pipes or damage to the pipeline might pollute soil and contaminate ground water, damaging the environment.
Question. Explain briefly the advantages that result in using waterways as a mode of transport for heavy and bulky goods.
Ans. Advantages/features of using waterways as mode of transport for heavy and bulky goods are ! Waterways are the cheapest means of transport and most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods. ! They are fuel-efficient and environment-friendly mode of transport. ! Heavy and bulky goods being exported or imported are easier for trans-shipment from waterways to ships on the coast, as the waterways lead to ports.
Question. Explain any four characteristics of Kandla sea port.
Ans. The four characteristics of Kandla sea port are
(i) It was the first port developed soon after independence. (ii) It was developed to reduce the volume of traffic on Mumbai port. (iii) It is a tidal port. (iv) It caters to the convenient handling of exports and imports of highly productive granary and industrialised belts including Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Question. Why is air transport more popular in the North- Eastern part of the country? Give three reasons. Or “Airways is the most preferred mode of transport in North-Eastern states of India.” Give three reasons to prove this preference.
Ans. Air transport or airways is the most preferred mode of transport in the North-Eastern states in India because
(i) Big and wide rivers are present in the North Eastern states, due to which rail or road bridges over them are difficult and costly to construct. (ii) This area has dissected relief features, preventing durable construction of rail and road links.
(iii) Dense forests in this region create many difficulties in construction of railway lines and roads.
Question. Explain any four merits and two demerits of air transport.
Ans. Merits of air transport are
(i) Air transport is the fastest, most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport.
(ii) It can cover very difficult terrains with great ease.
(iii) It makes access to far-flung and remote or otherwise inaccessible areas easier and quicker.
(iv) It provides transport services to offshore oil and gas exploration activities. Demerits of air transport are
(i) Air transport is a very costly means of transportation.
(ii) Places not having airports or helipads are not covered by it.
Question. Classify communication services into two categories? Explain main features of each.
Ans. Communication services are classified into personal communication and mass communication. Features of Personal communication are ! In personal communication, people can express their thoughts and share with others. ! Letters, e-mails, SMSs, telephone and mobile phone facilities including STD and ISD services are examples of personal communication. Features of mass communication are ! Mass communication provides entertainment and creates awareness among people about various national programmes and policies. ! It includes radio, television, newspapers, magazine, books and films. !
Question. “The textile industry is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain.” Justify the statement.
Ans. The textile industry is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain because:
(1) It contributes significantly to industrial production (14%).
(2) It generates employment for about 35 million people.
(3) It earns foreign exchange of about 24.6%.
(4) It contributes about 4% towards GDP.
Question. Why has the ‘Chhotanagpur Plateau Region’ the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries ? Analyse the reasons.
Ans. ‘Chotanagpur Plateau Region’ has maximum concentration of Iron and Steel industries because:
(1) Low cost of iron ore is available
(2) High grade raw material is in proximity
(3) Cheap labour
(4) Vast growth potential in the home market
Question. Describe the importance of the cotton textile industry in the Indian economy.
Ans. The importance of the cotton textile industry in the Indian economy is:
(1) The textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian economy because of its significant contributions towards industrial production, employment generation, and foreign exchange earnings.
(2) Additionally, it is the only industry which is self-reliant and complete in its value chain. Hence its production employs multiple people at all stages..
(3) The industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to many people (farmers, cotton ball pluckers, dyers, designers, etc.). It therefore supports many other industries, such as chemicals and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works.
(4) The hand spun khadi also provides large scale employment to weavers in the cottage industry.
Question. Classify industries on the basis of capital investment. How are they different from one another? Explain with examples.
Ans. On the basis of capital investment, the classification can be as:
(1) Small scale industries
(2) Large scale industries Small scale industries are differentiated from large scale industries on the basis of the investment made. The limit of investment changes with time. At present, the maximum investment allowed is rupees one crore for a small scale industry, whereas if investment is more than rupees one crore for an industry, then it is known as a large scale industry. Paper, toys, utensils, etc. are examples of small scale industries, whereas cement, iron, etc. are examples of large scale industries.
Question. Distinguish between an integrated steel plant and a mini steel plant in three points.
Ans. Three points of differences between an integrated steel plant and a mini steel plant are as follows:
(1) An integrated steel plant is larger than a mini steel plant.
(2) An integrated steel plant uses iron ore for making steel while mini steel plant uses scrap and sponge iron to produce steel.
(3) An integrated steel plant produces only steel while mini steel plant produces mild and alloy steel.
Question. Describe any three major problems faced by the cotton textile industry in India.
Ans. Major problems faced by the cotton textile industry in India are as follows:
(1) Most of the production is carried out in fragmented small units. Thus, cotton weavers are unable to reap benefits which come with large scale production.
(2) Power supply is erratic and irregular in nature, which makes production a time consuming process
(3) Machinery used by the weavers is outdated.
(4) Labourers are unskilled and have low productivity.
(5) Textile industry faces stiff competition from synthetic fibre industry.
(6) Most of the high quality yarn is not used by Indian weavers as it is exported.
Question. ‘In recent years, there is a tendency for the sugar mills to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states, especially in Maharashtra.’ Give three reasons to justify the statement.
Ans. Three reasons due to which sugar mills are shifting to southern and western states of India are as follows:
(1) The sugarcane produced here has a higher sucrose content.
(2) The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season.
(3) The cooperatives are more successful in these states.
Question. “India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world. Net we are not able to perform to our full potential.” Suggest and explain any three measures to get full potential.
Ans. India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world. Yet we are not able to perform to our full potential. The following measures can be adopted to reach full potential:
(1) The availability of coking coal should be increased and its cost should be reduced by importing it from other countries or using the latest technology.
(2) The productivity of labour should be increased by encouraging them to work hard and giving them a healthy environment to work.
(3) The supply of energy and electricity should be improved by introducing the latest technology and machinery.
(4) The infrastructure, machines and technology should be updated with time.
Question. Describe the importance of manufacturing industries as a backbone of economic development of the country.
Explain with examples the interdependence of agriculture and industries.
Ans. The manufacturing sector is considered as the backbone of economic development of a country because:
(1) The manufacturing sector provides employment to a large number of people in the industrial as well as service sectors.
(2) It helps in increasing agricultural productivity by modernising agriculture.
(3) It also helps in minimising regional disparities by setting up industries in tribal and backward areas of the country.
(4) It leads to the economic development of the country by getting foreign exchange in return of trading goods.
(5) It also leads to the expansion of trade and commerce.
(6) It helps in the transformation of raw materials into furnished goods that are higher in price and value.
Question. Mention the challenges faced by the jute industries in India. With what objectives the National Jute Policy was formed in 2005?
Ans. Challenges faced by Jute Industries are as follows:
(1) Stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes.
(2) Stiff competition from other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand. Objectives of National Jute Policy-2005: In 2005, National Jute Policy was formulated with the objectives of increasing productivity, improving quality, ensuring good prices to the jute farmers and enhancing the yield per hectare.
Question. Classify industries on the basis of their main roles. How are they different from each other?
Ans. On the basis of their main roles manufacturing industries can be classified as-
(1) Basic or key industries
(2) Consumer industries Basic or key industries supply their goods as raw materials to manufacture other goods, whereas consumer industries produce goods for direct consumption by the consumers. Iron and steel industries, copper smelting industries, etc. are examples of basic or key industries, whereas sugar industries, soap industries, etc. are examples of consumer industries.
Question. Read the source given below and answer the question that follows: Consequently, manufacturing activity tends to locate at the most appropriate place where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at lower cost. After an industrial activity starts, urbanisation follows. “Industrialisation and urbanisation go hand in hand”. Explain and validate the statement.
Ans. As soon as any industrial activity starts in a town, urbanisation follows. Industry provides employment to skilled and semiskilled labourers in large numbers. Population migrates from rural hinterlands to seek jobs in these industries. Once mass migration occurs, the town develops its housing and transportation facilities to accommodate these people. Schools, colleges, markets, hospitals and other infrastructural facilities follow once the living standard of the inhabitants is capable enough to support them. Slowly, an uninhabited town becomes a fully-functional city with all kinds of facilities available for its citizens. Thus Industrialisation and Urbanisation go hand in hand.
Question. How do industrial units cause air pollution? Explain.
Ans. Industrial units cause air pollution in the following ways:
(1) Industries that ignore pollution norms cause air pollution created by the presence of high proportion of gases.
(2) Air borne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles, which get released into the atmosphere during production.
(3) Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants and burning of fossil fuels belong to the major polluting industries.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. Explain the importance of means of transport as a prerequisite for the development of a country.
Ans. Efficient means of transport are prerequisite for fast development because more development of goods and services are not enough alone. The importance of means of transport is ! Transportation offers numerous opportunities within the employment sector. Traffic control, pilots, captains, delivery services and drivers are some of the jobs that are provided through this industry. Thus, it also helps the country to reduce unemployment ratio. ! High quality transport links ensure that communities can access basic services, facilities and employment opportunities. The connectivity provided by such links promotes social inclusion. It can also reduce social isolation and enhance quality of life. ! Transport facilities are also required to transport raw materials from their source region to industrial locations such as transportation of coal to iron and steel industry. ! Final products from industries also require transport facilities for their transportation to market so that consumers are able to buy them. ! Availability of transport services i.e. roadways, railways and waterways (wherever there is scope) help in increasing trade, connect the areas and facilitate movement of people. This helps in the development of a country.
Question. Explain the importance of roadways as a means of transport.
Ans. The importance of roadways as a means of transport is ! Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances. ! Road transport also provides door-to-door service, thus, the cost of loading and unloading is much lower. ! Road transport links other modes of transport like between railway stations, air and sea ports. ! National and state highways help in linking the extreme parts of the state and country. Through roads the entire country is connected. ! People can go from one place to another in search of jobs, businesses, tourism etc and goods can be transported due to proper linking of roads. Thus, road ways are a very important means of transportation.
Question. Classify the roads according to their capacity and describe the role of each.
Ans. In India, roads are classified in six classes according to their capacity as ! Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways This super highway links India’s four largest metropolitan cities, i.e. Delhi-Kolkata- Chennai-Mumbai. North-South and East-West corridor are part of this. These highways reduce time and distance between mega cities. ! National Highways These are primary road systems that link important parts of the country. ! State Highways These roads link a state capital with its district headquarters. These are constructed by State Public Works Department. ! District Roads These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district. ! Rural Roads These roads, also known as other roads, link rural areas and villages with towns. ! Border Roads These roads are constructed along the international border of India by Border Road Organisation. It has improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain.
Question. Explain the importance of railways as a means of transport.
Ans. The importance of Indian Railways as a means of transport is ! Railways are considered as the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India. Daily a lot of commuters and office goers travel through railways. ! Railways provides cheap mode of transport to all. It is cheaper as compared to other modes of transport like airways. ! Railways help to conduct various activities, viz, business, sightseeing, pilgrimage, transportation of goods over long distances etc. Through these activities railways add more revenue to the economy of a country. ! Railways bind the economic life of our country by accelerating the development of the industry and agriculture. ! The Indian Railways is the largest public sector undertaking in the country which is the biggest employer in India.
Question. Classify any five ports of India according to their types and main purpose.
Ans. The ports of India according to their types and main purpose are
(i) Chennai Port (Tamil Nadu) ! Type of Port It is one of the oldest artificial ports in India. ! Purpose It is made for trade and cargo
(ii) Haldia Port (West Bengal) ! Type of Port It is a subsidiary port to relieve pressure on Kolkata port. ! Purpose It is made for decongesting Kolkata port.
(iii) Jawaharlal Nehru Port (Maharashtra) ! Type of Port It is specialised in handling container shipments. ! Purpose It is made for decongesting Mumbai port and serve as a hub for the region. (iv) Kandla Port (Gujarat) ! Type of Port It is a tidal port. ! Purpose It was developed after independence to ease the volume of trade on Mumbai port.
(v) Kochi Port (Kerala) ! Type of Port It is a natural port located at the entrance of a lagoon. ! Purpose It specialised in handling container shipments.
Question. Describe any five points of importance of mass communication. Or Write any three importance of means of mass communication.
Ans. Importance of mass communication is
(i) Mass communication is required to spread the flow of information upto the grassroot level. Therefore, government has made special provision to extend 24 hours STD facility to every village in the country.
(ii) All India Radio (Akashwani) broadcasts a variety of programmes in national, regional and local languages for various categories of people spread over different parts of the country. (iii) Doordarshan broadcasts a variety of programmes for entertainment, educational programmes to sports, etc. for people of different age groups.
(iv) India publishes a large number of newspapers and periodicals annually for providing information.
(v) India is the largest producer of feature films in the world. It produces short films, video feature films and video short films for entertainment.
Question. “International trade is considered the economic barometer of a country.” Justify the statement with arguments.
Ans. International trade is considered the economic barometer of a country because ! As the resources are limited no country can survive without international trade. ! Goods or resources possessed by one country are required by other and vice-versa. These differences create conditions for international trade. ! Foreign trade has helped India to improve its productivity of manufactured goods. International trade contributes to India’s economic growth, raising income levels of people. ! In recent years, exchange of information and knowledge has benefitted in greater exchange of goods across states and countries. ! India has emerged as a software giant at the international level and it is earning large foreign exchange through the export of information technology.
Question. The pace of change in the communication sector has been rapid in modern times.” Support the statement with examples.
Ans. The pace of change in communication sector has been rapid in modern times as a result of which the long distance communication has become easier without physical movement of the communicator or receiver. For example, ! The advanced communication meant to save our time and money as well. Personal communication and mass communication including television, radio, press, films etc, are the major means of communication. ! The Indian postal network handles parcels as well as personal written communication. It also deals with first class mails (e.g. cards, envelopes) and second-class mails (e.g. books packets, periodicals, registered newspapers) which are carried by different means of transport. To facilitate quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities, six mail channels namely Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel have been introduced recently. ! The use of mobile phones has also provided boost to the communication sector in the modern times. !
Question. ‘‘Sugar industry in India is facing challenges.’’ Analyse the statement with suitable arguments.
Ans. Challenges faced by Sugar Industry:
(1) Seasonal nature of industry.
(2) Old machinery.
(3) Ineffcient method of production.
(4) Transport delay.
(5) The need to maximize the use of baggase.
(6) Any other relevant point.
Question. Explain the factors which are responsible for location of industries.
Ans. Factors responsible for location of industries are –
(1) Easy availability of raw material – Industries are located close to a place where uninterrupted, easy and cheap sources of raw material are found along with fast and easy transportation.
(2) Availability of cheap labour – Industries are generally located in close proximity to highly populated regions which become easy and inexhaustible sources of cheap labour.
(3) Availability of capital – Money or capital is an essential factor needed without which production is not possible. Thus, banking facilities help provide capital to the investor in the form of loans.
(4) Availability of uninterrupted power supply.
(5) Availability of market to sell goods made in industries, with easy transportational and communication facilities are also very important for location of an industry.
(6) Availability of Water: Water is one of the major things required in any industry. It is very important in deciding an appropriate location.
Question. What is the manufacturing sector ? Why is it considered the backbone of development? Interpret the reason.
Ans. Definition of Manufacturing Sector: Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing. It is considered as backbone of development because:
(1) It not only helps in modernising agriculture but also forms the backbone of our economy.
(2) Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from our country.
(3) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce.
(4) Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of finished goods of higher value are prosperous.
(5) Any other relevant point.
Question. Explain the ways through which the industrial pollution of fresh water can be reduced.
Ans. Ways to reduce industrial water pollution are –
(1) Minimising water usage for processing and other steps in various equipments by reusing the same water again and again and recycling it in two or more successive stages.
(2) Harvesting rainwater to meet household water requirements and also to help rejuvenate ground water can also reduce water pollution.
(3) Treatment of hot water and affluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds multiple times to avoid release of toxins like arsenic, lead and mercury.
(4) Segregation of wastes into various categories and appropriate treatment thereafter can also help save plastic from being dumped into water bodies. Plastics choke aquatic animals, thus killing them.
(5) Reducing usage of non-biodegradable plastic, paper and other synthetic fibres can help generate less disposable waste. Biodegradable and reusable fibres and materials should be encouraged.
(6) Regulation of the usage of ground water by industries.
(7) Installing water treatment plants at the industrial sites for recycling.
(8) Treating chemical and acidic waste before releasing in water bodies.
Question. Explain any two main challenges faced by the jute industry in India. Explain any three objectives of the National Jute Policy.
Ans. Challenges faced by the jute industry in India are:
(1) Stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes.
(2) Supply competition from other jute producing nations like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.
(3) Small farmers face hard competition from outside India. The major objective of the National Jute Policy, 2005 are:
(1) To increase productivity by producing more and providing material to farmers on lower rates.
(2) To improve quality by providing them good material.
(3) Ensuring fair prices for the jute farmers by fixing prices.
(4) Enhancing the yield per hectare.
(5) The internal demand for jute has been on the increase.
(6) The government made the use of jute packaging mandatory.
Question. Why does the textile industry occupy an important position in the Indian economy? Explain.
OR ÅExplain the contribution of the textile industry in the Indian economy.
Ans. The textile industry occupies an important position in the Indian economy because:
(1) It contributes significantly to industrial production (14%).
(2) It generates employment for about 35 million people.
(3) It earns foreign exchange of about 24.6 percent.
(4) It generates about 4 per cent of the GDP.
(5) It is the only industry in India which is selfreliant and complete in the value chain,i.e., from raw material to the highest value added products, all inputs are created in India.
Question. ‘The challenge of sustainable development requires control over industrial pollution.’Substantiate the statement with examples.
Ans. (1) On one hand Industries lead to extensive industrial growth and expansion, other hand these are also the cause of environmental degeneration which prompt to the different type of air, water pollution.
(2) There is an increasing requirement to use a further sustainable model.
(3) Industries must produce eco-friendly products and dump wastes responsibly (4) Use of latest technology can help industries to control pollution and lead towards sustainable mode of operation.
(5) Industries use- Reuse-Recycle-Refuse approach.
(6) If necessary, dump waste in specified places, away from the land and water sources, for example- before dumping treat well and make useful forother than drinking purpose,stop using thermal plants in some of the locations.
Question. Suggest any five measures to control industrial pollution in India.
Ans. Measures to control industrial pollution:
(1) Fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators.
(2) Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
(3) Machinery and equipment can be used and generators should be fitted with silencers
(4) Almost all machinery can be redesigned to increase energy effciency a nd reduce noise.
(5) Noise absorbing material may be used apart from personal use of earplugs and earphones.
Question. Explain any five factors that are responsible for the location of the jute mills mainly along the banks of the Hugli River.
Ans. Factors that are responsible for the location of the jute mills mainly along the banks of the Hugli River are:
(1) The proximity of the jute producing areas cuts down the transportation cost.
(2) Low-cost water transport, supported by a good network of railways, roadways and waterways, helps the movement of raw material to the mills.
(3) Presence of abundant water for processing raw jute.
(4) Cheap labour from West Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh helps in cutting down the cost.
(5) Kolkata as an urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for the export of jute goods.
(6) Kolkata port facility is available which helps to transport finished goods to other places easily.