Please refer to Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Social Science notes and questions with solutions below. These revision notes and important examination questions have been prepared based on the latest Social Science books for Class 10. You can go through the questions and solutions below which will help you to get better marks in your examinations.
Class 10 Social Science Democracy and Diversity Notes and Questions
Politics of Social Divisions
Democracy involves competition among various political parties. Their competitions tends to divide any society if they start competing in terms of some existing social divisions, it can make social divisions into political divisions and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country.
– It would be best if there are no social divisions in any country. If social divisions do exist in a country, they must never be expressed in politics. – Social divisions affect voting in most countries.
– In a democracy, political expression of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy.
– Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics after results in their canceling one an other out and thus reducing their intensity.
Questions and Answers
Question. Mention any one characteristics of power sharing.
The people and the leaders respect the sentiments of different communities and religions.
Question. What is a homogeneous society?
It is a society that has similar kinds of people especially where there are no significant ethnic differences. For example, as in the countries like Germany and Sweden.
Question. Who are represented by the term’ African American?
The descendants of Africa, who were mostly brought into America as slaves between 17th and early 19th century.
Question. Highlight the case of Northern Ireland in reference to cross cutting of social differences.
In Northern Ireland, people are predominantly Christian but divided between Catholic and Protestants. Class and religion overlap with each other thus, creating a possibility of deep social divisions and tensions. If one is Catholic, he/she is also more likely to be poor, and may have suffered a history of discrimination. The result is that Catholics and Protestants have conflicts in Northern Ireland.
Question. Which university has recently installed the statues of Tommie Smith and John Carlos in its campus?
In 2005, the San Jose State University installed a 20-foot high sculpture representing the protest by Tommie Smith and John Carlos.
Question. Give one example to show overlapping social difference create possibilities of deep social division and tensions.
The example of Catholics and Protestants and their conflicts in Northern Ireland.
Question. Which event in the USA is referred as the Black Power Movement (1966-73) ?
The movement to end racism.
Question. Which group of countries did face the problem of social division?
Sri Lanka, Belgium, United Kingdom
Question. Explain the three factors that are essential in deciding the outcome of politics of local decisions.
(i) People’s perception : This is the most important factor which decides the outcome of politics of social divisions. If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it will lead to social divisions and violence. As long as, people in Ireland saw themselves as only Catholic or Protestant, their difference prevailed leading to conflicts. It is better when the people see their identities as made of multiple factors that are in sync with the national identity. Such as a majority of Belgians now feel that they are as much Belgian nationalist as they are Dutch or German speaking. This feeling binds them together. Though India is a multi-cultural country, but the feeling of nationalism binds us together.
(ii) Raising of demands by political leaders : The outcome of politics of social division also depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community. The Sinhalese leaders of Sri Lanka wanted to fulfil their demand at the cost of other communities, and this led to the civil war. In Yugoslavia, the leaders of different ethnic communities presented their demands in such a way that these could not be accommodated within a single country. (iii) Reaction of Government : The outcome also depends on how the government reacts to the demands of different groups. If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country. But if they try to suppress such a demand with force and in the name of national unity, this can lead to civil war or division of country, and that is what happened in Sri Lanka.
Question. How far do the emergence of social difference lead to social division? Explain by giving a suitable example.
(i) If social differences cross-cut one another, it is difficult to avoid clashes between the groups holding different views.
(ii) It means that groups that share a common interest on one issue are likely to be in different sides of a different issue.
(iii) For example, in Northern Ireland class and religion tend to cut across each other leading to social tensions.
Question. Describe the consequences of Smith and Carlos reaction to the racial discrimination.
(i) Carlos and Smith were held guilty for violating the Olympic spirit by making political statement.
(ii) Medals were taken back.
(iii) Norman was not included in the Australian team.
(iv) Their action helped in gaining international attention for Civil Rights Movement.
Question. “Social division takes place when some social differences overlap with other differences.” Justify the statement.
(i) The difference between the Blacks and Whites becomes a social division in the US because the Blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against.
(ii) In our country Dalits tend to be poor and landless. They often face discrimination and injustice.
(iii) One kind of social difference becomes more important when other people start feeling that they belong to different communities.
Question. “In a democracy, every expression of social divisions in politics is not disastrous. “Establish the truth of the statement with the help of an example.
(i) Every expression of social division in politics does not lead to disasters because wherever social divisions exist, they are reflected in politics and get huge support.
(ii) In many countries, there are parties that focus on one community e.g., AIADMK and BSP in India.
Question. “We have different identities in different contexts.” Support the statement with three facts.
We have different identities in different contexts. It can be proved as follows :
(i) It is fairly common for people belonging to the same religions to feel that they do not belong to the same community because their caste is different.
(ii) It is also possible for people from different religions to have the same caste and feel close to each other.
(iii) Rich and poor persons from the same family often do not keep close relations with each other for they feel they are different.
Question. What steps should be taken according to you to promote the unity among the people of India?
Following steps can be taken to promote the unity among Indians :
(i) There should be equal opportunities of representation and no discrimination in the society.
(ii) Participation of more and more people in political affairs should be encouraged.
(iii) Religious tolerance and the support to minority groups should be given and they should be allowed to voice their opinion.
Question. “Attempts at forced integration often sow the seeds of disintegration.” Support the statement with suitable arguments.
(i) The above statement is true from the example of Sri Lanka. If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of the minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country.
(ii) But if they suppress such a demand in the name of national unity, the end result is often quite the opposite. Thus with such attempts at forced integration often sow the seeds of disintegration as seen in Sri Lanka.
Question. How is overlapping differences different from cross-cutting differences?
(i) Social differences which overlap other differences are known as overlapping differences, while when social differences cross-cut one another, it is known as cross-cutting differences.
(ii) Cross-cutting social differences are easier to accommodate, while overlapping differences are not.
(iii) Overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions, as seen in Ireland while cross-cutting differences do not usually lead to conflicts as seen in Belgium.
Question. Explain the two basis of social differences with examples.
Different forms of social differences :
(i) Social differences are based on accident of birth, e.g., people around us are male and female, they are tall and short, have different kind of complexions, or have different physical abilities or disabilities.
(ii) Some differences are based on choices, e.g. some people are atheists. Some people choose to follow a religion other than the one in which they were born.
Question. Explain with example the role of political leaders to determine the outcome of politics of social division.
It depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community. For example :
(i) it is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.
(ii) The demand for ‘only Sinhala’ was at the cost of the interest and identity of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka.
(iii) In Yugoslavia, the leaders of different ethnic communities presented their demands in such a way that these could not be accommodated within a single country.
Question. Why do some people think that it’s not correct to politicize social divisions? Give three reasons.
People think that is not correct to politicize social divisions because :
(i) it can make social divisions into political divisions and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country.
(ii) In Northern Ireland, there has been a violent and bitter ethno-political conflict for many years.
(iii) It caused disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries.
Question. Distinguish between Civil Rights Movements (1954-1968) and the Black Power Movement (1966-1975) in the USA.
Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968) :
Refers to a set of events and reform movements aimed at legally abolishing racial discrimination against African-Americans. Led by Martin Luther King Junior, this movement practised non-violent methods.
The Black Power Movement (1966 – 1975) :
This movement was a more militant anti-racist movement, advocating even violence, if necessary, to end racism in the U.S.
Question. Who was the leader of the Civil Rights Movement? Describe the importance of this movement.
Martin Luther King Junior was the leader of the Civil Rights Movement. This movement was started in 1954 and lasted till 1968.
Importance of Civil Rights Movement :
(i) It was a reform movement with the aim to abolish legal racial discrimination against African- Americans.
(ii) It practised non-violent methods of civil disobedience against racially discriminatory laws and practices.
Question. How is political expression of social division in democracy beneficial?
Every expression of social division in politics does not lead to disasters. Sometime, it is beneficial too.
(i) The various disadvantaged groups express their grievances and get the government to attend to the same.
(ii) Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their cancelling one another out and thus, reducing their intensity.
(iii) Fight against injustice often takes a democratic path, voicing their demands in a peaceful and constitutional manner and seeking a fair position through elections.
Question. “Social divisions exist in most of the countries.” Explain.
Social division of one kind or the other exists in most of the countries.
(i) Social divisions exist whether the country is big or small. India is a vast country with many communities. Belgium is a small country with many communities too.
(ii) Countries, such as Germany and Sweden, that were once highly homogeneous are undergoing rapid change with influx of people from other parts of the world.
(iii) Migrants bring with them their own culture and tend to form a different social community. In this sense, most countries of the world are multicultural and have social division.
Question. What are the features of a homogeneous society? Mention the name of any one country having such society.
Features of a homogeneous society :
(i) A society has similar kinds of people.
(ii) There are no significant ethnic differences. Germany and Sweden have homogenous societies.
Question. How do social divisions affect politics? Give two examples.
Social divisions affect politics in both negative and positive ways :
Negative ways :
(i) In Northern Ireland, there has been a violent and bitter ethno-political conflict for many years. Northern Ireland population was divided into Protestant (53%) and Roman Catholic (44%). The Catholics were represented by Nationalist parties who wanted to be unified with the Republic of Ireland. In contrast, Protestants were represented by Unionists who wanted to remain with the U.K. Hundreds of civilians, militants and security forces were killed in the fight between Unionists and Nationalist.
(ii) Disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries happened due to ethnic and religious differences.
Positive ways :
(i) Every expression of social division in politics does not lead to disasters because wherever social divisions exist, they are reflected in politics. In e.g. AIADMK and BSP in India.
Question. Taking the example of Carlos, Smith and Norman, explain how social differences divide similar people from one another but also unite very different people.
(a) Carlos and Smith were similar because both were African-Americans and thus, different from Norman who was white.
(b) However, all three were similar because they were athleties who stood against racial discrimination.
Thus, it is correct to say that social differences divide similar people from each other but it also unites different people.
Question. What were the black gloved and raised clenched fists meant to do? Why did athletes do so?
To draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States, the African- American athletes performed following activities :
(i) They received their models wearing black socks and no shoes to represent Black poverty.
(ii) When American national anthem was played, these two African-American athletes stood with clenched fists upraised and heads bowed.
(iii) The black gloved and raised clenched fists were meant to symbolise Black power.
Question. Politics and social divisions must not be allowed to mix. Substantiate this statement, with five arguments.
(i) Democracy involves competition among various political parties. Their competition tends to divide any society. If they start competing in terms of some existing social divisions, it can change social division into political division and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country.
(ii) Hundreds of civilians, militants and security forces were killed in the fight between Unionists and Nationalists and between the security forces of the UK in Ireland.
(iii) Political competition along religious and ethnic lines led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries.
(iv) In a democracy, it is only natural that political parties would talk about the social divisions, make different promises to different communities, look after due representation of various communities, but often it takes a negative turn.
(v) Social divisions affect voting in most countries. People from one community tend to prefer some party to others. In many countries, there are parties that focus only on one community, which does not serve the greater cause.
Question. Describe the problems faced by a democracy to accommodate social diversities.
Various problems faced by a democracy to accommodate social diversities are as follows :
(i) A positive attitude towards diversity and a willingness to accommodate it do not come about easily amongst the leaders.
(ii) People who feel marginalized, deprived and discriminated have to fight against the injustice often with less support.
(iii) Such a fight often takes the democratic path, voicing their demands in a peaceful and constitutional manner and seeking a solution through elections.
(iv) Sometimes social differences can take the form of unacceptable level of social inequality and injustice.
(v) The struggle against such inequalities sometimes takes the path of violence and difference of state power.
Question. What lessons have been learnt from the Civil Rights Movement of Martin Luther King Jr in the USA?
(i) People learnt that issues, such as discrimination on the basis of colour existed in many regions of the world and especially in the USA.
(ii) The issue of equality was much discussed and it was realized that equality is a dream for many sections of the society in different countries with parallel problems.
(iii) People learnt that thought a non-violent protest it was possible to highlight a social problem and find solutions for the same.
(iv) It is only by the democratic process that disadvantaged sections of society are able to highlight their problems and find solutions.
Question. Explain overlapping and cross-cutting social differences with three examples.
Social divisions of one kind or the other exist in most parts of the world based on race, religion, language or culture.
(a) Overlapping Social Differences: Overlapping differences happen when some social differences overlap other differences.
It becomes a social division when some social differences are joined by another set of social differences. For example, the difference in the Blacks and the Whites in America is due to their different race, which is a social difference.
It becomes a social division when, for example, the income factor is also added to it. The Blacks tend to be poor and homeless, while the Whites tend to be rich and educated. This creates a division in the people, making them feel that they belong to different communities.
In India, Dalits tend to be poor and landless. They often face discrimination and injustice. Situations of this kind produce social division.
(b) Cross-cutting Social Differences : Cross- cutting differences happen when one type of social difference is weakened by another set of social differences. Then, it becomes difficult to group people into a single category because they are going to have different opinions and views on different matters. On some matters, there might be agreement on a particular issue, but there might be disagreement on another issue. For example, people in the Netherlands are predominantly Christian, but divided between Catholics and Protestants. Here class and religion cross-cut each other. Catholics and Protestants are about equally likely to be poor or rich and they do not have conflict between them.
Notes For NCERT Class 10 Social Science Democratic Politics – II Chapter 3 Democracy and Diversity
• Social Division
Division of the society on the basis of language, region, caste, colour, race or sex. It signifies linguistic and regional diversity.
• Civil Rights Movement in the USA(1954-1968)
A series of events and reform movements with the aim of abolishing legal, racial discrimination against African-Americans. Martin Luther King Jr. started the movement in 1954.This movement practiced non-violent methods of civil disobedience against racially discriminatory laws and practices.
Afro-American, Black American or Black are the terms used to refer mainly to the descendents of Africans who were brought into America as slaves between early 17th and 19th century.
• The Black power.
It was a movement started by black people in 1966(1966-1975) against racism and the practice of apartheid.It was a militant movement advocating even violence if necessary to end racism in the US .
Anybody who shifts from one region or country to another region within a country or to another country for the purpose of work or other economic opportunities.
It refers to communities who are less than half of the total population of the country.The idea of minority at national level is totally different from what it is at state level.
• Homogenous Society.
Homogenous Society signifies absence of significant ethnic differences. It is a society that has similar kinds of people or inhabitants.
• Multi- Cultural Community
Social community formed on the basis of different cultures is known as theMulticultural community. This happens mostly due to the practice of migration when people bring with them their own culture.
Three determinants (factors) for the outcome of politics of social divisions –
• How people perceive their identities- eg-to be an Indian though belonging to different state
• How political leaders raise the demands of any community- eg- The demand for ‘only Sinhala’ in Srilanka brought distrust among Tamils.
• How the govt. react to different groups- eg –Willing to share power and be accommodative like in Belgium
Advantage of social division in democracy-
• Can express their grievances and the govt. attend to it
• Intensity of social division is reduced by canceling one another out, through their expressions(being accommodative)
• Raise their issues in a peaceful manner for seeking votes
Short Answer Questions
Question Q1. Mention three similarities between Tommie Smith and John Carlos.
• Both were African – Americans.
• Both won medals at the Mexico Olympic Games in 1968.
• Stood against racial discrimination which was practiced against the Africans in America.
Question Q2. Who was Peter Norman? Why did he support Carlos and Smith? What punishment did he get for this?
• Peter Norman was an Australian Athlete.
• Norman wore a human rights badge on his shirt during the ceremony to show his support to the dissent of two American athletes.
• Norman was not included in the Australian team for the next Olympic.
Question Q 3. How do class and religion overlap with each other in Northern Ireland?
Answer: In Northern Ireland the population is divided into two major sects of Christianity – 53% are Protestants and 44% are Roman Catholics. The Catholics are more likely to be poor and suffered a history of discrimination. On the other hand, the Protestants are rich. This resulted in conflicts between the two.
Question Q4. Explain two advantages and two disadvantages of social divisions in democracy.
• Political expressions of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.
• Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their canceling one another out and thus reducing their intensity.
• In a democracy the different social groups organize themselves to bring equality, social justice and other vested interests. Sometimes their protest results into violence or conflicts.
• For the society which has high social divisions, becomes very difficult to ensure integrity and unity.
Question Q.5- What do you know about origins of social differences?
• Social differences are mostly based on accident of birth. Some of the differences are based on our choices.
• By Birth- Normally we do not choose to belong to our community, we belong to it simply because we are born into it.
• By choices- Some people are atheists-they do not believe in God or any religion, some choose to follow religion other than in which they were born.
Long Answer Questions
Question 1. ‘Overlapping social differences create deep social divisions and Cross-cutting differences are easier to accommodate’- Justify the given statement.
• Social divisions take place when some social difference overlaps with other differences.
• The difference between Blacks and Whites becomes a social division in US because the Blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against.
• When one kind of social difference become more important than the other, this produces social divisions. In Northern Ireland, class and religion overlap with each other.
• If social differences cross cut one another, it is difficult to pit one group of people against the other. In Netherlands class and religion tend to cut across each other.
Question 2. Explain the three determinants in deciding the outcome of politics with examples.
• How people perceive their identities.
• How Political leaders raise the demands of any community.
• How the government reacts to demands of different groups. (To explain)
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