# Magnetic Effect of Electric Current Class 10 Science Notes And Questions

Please refer to Magnetic Effect of Electric Current Class 10 Science notes and questions with solutions below. These revision notes and important examination questions have been prepared based on the latest Science books for Class 10. You can go through the questions and solutions below which will help you to get better marks in your examinations.

## Class 10 Science Magnetic Effect of Electric Current Notes and Questions

DEFINITION

Magnetic field: The area around a magnet where a magnetic force is experienced is called the magnetic field. It is a quantity that has both direction and magnitude, (i.e., Vector quantity) Magnetic field lines: The imaginary lines of magnetic field around a magnet are called field line or field line of magnet.

Properties of magnetic field lines
(i) They do not intersect each other.
(ii) It is taken by convention that magnetic field lines emerge from North pole and merge at the South pole. Inside the magnet, their direction is from South pole to North pole. Therefore magnetic field lines are closed curves.

Right-Hand Thumb Rule: If a current carrying conductor is held by right hand, keeping the thumb straight and if the direction of electric current is in the direction of thumb, then the direction of wrapping of other fingers will show the direction of magnetic field.

Magnetic field lines due to a current through a circular loop
In case of a circular current carrying conductor, the magnetic field is produced in the same manner as it is in case of a straight current carrying conductor.

The strength of the magnetic field at the centre of the loop(coil) depends on :
(i) The radius of the coil: The strength of the magnetic field is inversely proportional to the radius of the coil. If the radius increases, the magnetic strength at the centre decreases
(ii) The number of turns in the coil : As the number of turns in the coil increase, the magnetic strength at the centre increases, because the current in each circular turn is having the same direction, thus, the field due to each turn adds up.
(iii) The strength of the current flowing in the coil: As the strength of the current increases, the strength of three magnetic fields also increases.

Magnetic field due to a current in a Solenoid: Solenoid is the coil with many circular turns of insulated copper wire wrapped closely in the shape of a cylinder. A current carrying solenoid produces similar pattern of magnetic field as a bar magnet. One end of solenoid behaves as the north pole and another end behaves as the south pole.

Magnetic field lines are parallel inside the solenoid, similar to a bar magnet, which shows that magnetic field is same at all points inside the solenoid.

Fleming’s Right-Hand Rule: Electromagnetic induction can be explained with the help of Fleming’s Right Hand Rule. If the right hand is structured in a way that the index (fore ginger) finger, middle finger and thumb are in mutually perpendicular directions, then the thumb shows direction of induced current in the conductor, in conductor The directions of movement of conductor, magnetic field and induced current can be compared to three mutually perpendicular axes, i.e. x, y and z axes.

Fleming’s Left-Hand Rule : The Fleming’s Left Hand Rule states that if the left hand is stretched in a way that the index finger, the middle finger and the thumb are in mutually perpendicular directions, then the index finger and middle finger of a stretched left hand show the direction of magnetic field and direction of electric current respectively and the thumb shows the direction of motion or force acting on the conductor. The directions of electric current, magnetic field and force are similar to three mutually perpendicular axes, i.e. x, y, and z-axes.
Many devices, such as electric motor, electric generator, loudspeaker, etc. work on Fleming’s Left Hand Rule.

#### Multiple Choice Questions

Question. The magnetic field inside a long straight solenoid-carrying current
(i) is zero
(ii) decreases as we move towards its end
(iii) increases as we move towards its end
(iv) is the same at all points

(iv) Is the same at all points.

Question. Which of the following property of a proton can change while it moves freely in a magnetic field.
(There may be more than one correct answer.)
(i) Mass
(ii) Speed
(iii) Velocity
(iv) Momentum

The Choose the correct option: (iii) velocity, (iv) momentum.

Question. A rectangular coil of copper wires is rotated in a magnetic field. The direction of the induced current changes once in each:
(i) two revolution
(ii) one revolution
(iii) half revolution
(iv) one-fourth revolution

(iii) Half revolution.

Question. The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is
(i) the process of charging a body
(ii) the process of generating magnetic field due to a current passing through a coil
(iii) producing induced current in a coil due to relative motion between a magnet and the coil
(iv) the process of rotating a coil of an electric motor

(iii) Producing induced current in a coil due to relative motion between a magnet and the coil

Question. At the time of short circuit, the current in the circuit
(i) reduces substantially
(ii) does not change
(iii) increases heavily
(iv) varies continuously

(iii) Increases heavily.

#### Assertion and Reason Type Questions

Direction – In each of the following questions, a statement of Assertion is given by the corresponding statement of Reason. Of the statements, mark the correct answer as
(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
(b) If both Assertion and Reason are true, but Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion.
(c) If Assertion is true but Reason is false.
(d) If Assertion is false, but Reason is true.
(e) If Assertion and Reason both are false.

ASSERTION AND REASON

1. Assertion: A current-carrying conductor experiences a force in a magnetic field.
Reason: The force acting on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field is due to interaction between magnetic field produced by the current-carrying conductor and external magnetic field in which the conductor is placed.
Ans. A

2. Assertion: Electric Motor converts Electric Energy into mechanical Energy.
Reason: Electric motor is based on the principle of Flemings right-hand rule.
Ans. C

3. Assertion: Magnetic field lines do not intersect each other.
Reason: There cannot to two direction of the magnetic field at a point.
Ans. A

Question. Why and when does a current carrying conductor kept in a magnetic field experience force? List the factors on which direction of this force depends?
Answer. The drifting of free electrons of a conductor in a definite direction causes the current to flow through it. When such conductor is placed in a uniform magnetic field, each drifted electron of a conductor experience a magnetic force. This force is collectively experience by a conductor as a whole. Hence a current carrying conductor kept in a magnetic field experience a force. The direction of magnetic force depends on
(i) direction of current through the conductor, and
(ii) direction of magnetic field.

Question. What are magnetic field lines? Justify the following statements
(a) Two magnetic field lines never intersect each other.
(b) Magnetic field lines are closed curves.
Answer. Magnetic field lines: It is defined as the path along which the unit North pole (imaginary) tends to move in a magnetic field if free to do so.
(a) The magnetic lines of force do not intersect (or cross) one another. If they do so then at the point of intersection, two tangents can be drawn at that point which indicates that there will be two different directions of the same magnetic which field, i.e. the compass needle points in two different directions which is not possible.
(b) Magnetic field lines are closed continuous curves. They diverge from the north pole of a bar magnet and converge its south pole. Inside the magnet they move from south pole to north pole.

Question. What is meant by solenoid? How does a current carrying solenoid behave? Give its main use.
Answer. Solenoid: A coil of many circular turns of insulated copper wire wound on a cylindrical insulating body (i.e., cardboard etc.) such that its length is greater than its diameter is called solenoid.

When current is flowing through the solenoid, the magnetic field line pattern resembles exactly with those of a bar magnet with the fixed polarity, i.e. North and South pole at its ends and it acquires the directive and attractive properties similar to bar magnet. Hence, the current carrying solenoid behave as a bar magnet.
Use of current carrying solenoid: It is used to form a temporary magnet called electromagnet as well as permanent magnet.

Question. a)Describe an activity to demonstrate the pattern of magnetic field lines around a straight conductor carrying current.
(b) State the rule to find the direction of magnetic field associated with a current carrying conductor.
(c) What is the shape of a current carrying conductor whose magnetic field pattern resembles that of a bar-magnet ?
Answer. (a) Aim : To study the magnetic field due to a straight current carrying conductor.
Apparatus Required : A thick conducting wire, battery, rheostat, magnetic needle, ammeter (0-5 A), key, a cardboard, a stand to hold the wire, iron filings and sprinkler of iron filings.
Procedure :
1. Attach the thick wire through a hole at the middle of the cardboard and clamp it in a stand.
2. Attach the ends of the wire through a key, variable resistor and an ammeter on either side of a battery and hold it vertically and perpendicularly to the board.
3. Spread the iron filings uniformly on the cardboard and place the magnetic needle on the board.
4. Close the key and tap the cardboard slightly and observe the orientation of iron filings.

Observation :
1. Just on closing the key, the iron filings are aligned in the pattern of concentric circles around the wire.

Conclusion :
1. Current carrying conductor is a source of magnetic field.
2. The magnetic field is in the form of concentric circles whose centre lies on the wire.

(b) Right-Hand Thumb Rule. This rule is used to find the direction of magnetic field due to a straight current carrying wire.

It states that if we hold the current carrying-conductor in the right hand in such a way that the thumb is stretched along the direction of current, then the curly finger around the conductor represent the direction of magnetic field produced by it. This is known as right-hand thumb rule.
Direction of Field Lines due to current carrying straight conductor is as shown in figure.

(c) Solenoid.

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