Please refer to The Cold War Era Class 12 Political Science notes and questions with solutions below. These revision notes and important examination questions have been prepared based on the latest Science books for Class 12. You can go through the questions and solutions below which will help you to get better marks in your examinations . We have provided the latest Class 12 Political Science Notes and Questions for all chapters in your NCERT Class 12 Political Science Book.
Class 12 Political Science The Cold War Era Notes and Questions
SECOND WORLD WAR (1939 – 1945)
(Allied Power Won)
End of the War
- USA dropped atomic bombs in Japan in august in 1945.
- 6 august 1945, Hiroshima (LITTLE BOY)
- 9 August 1945, Nagasaki (FAT MAN)
Critics of American bombing
- unnecessary act
- Japan was about to surrender
- an attempt by the us to overcome Soviet Union in power race. it was to prove the American supremacy over Moscow.
Supporters of USA
it was a necessary act to end the war so quickly and to stop further loss.
WHAT IS COLD WAR
- The cold war was a period (1945-1991) of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union and its satellite states (the eastern European countries), and the United States with its allies (the western European countries) after World War second.
- The cold war was the war of ideologies. The USA followed the ideology of Liberal Democracy and Capitalism while the USSR backed the ideology of Socialism and Communism.
- The term “COLD” is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides.
LOGIC OF ‘DETERRENCE’
- Even if one of them tries to attack and disable the nuclear weapons of its rival, the other would still be left with enough nuclear weapons to inflict unacceptable destruction. This is called the logic of ‘deterrence’:
- In the event of a nuclear war, both sides will be so badly harmed that it will be impossible to declare e one side or the other as the winner.
EMERGENCE OF TWO POWER BLOCS // BIPOLARITY
|AMERICAN BLOCS||SOVIET BLOCS|
|1. It was a western or capitalist bloc.||1. It was a western or capitalist bloc.|
|2. It was a western or capitalist bloc.||2. It was a western or capitalist bloc.|
|3. It was a western or capitalist bloc.||3. Main support from eastern Europe.|
|4. It was a western or capitalist bloc.||4. Main support from eastern Europe.|
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CAPITALIST AND SOCIALIST SYSTEM
|CAPITALIST SYSTEM||SOCIALIST SYSTEM|
|1. Capitalism is an economic system where the means of production are owned by private individuals.||1. The mans of productions such as a money and other form of capital are owned by the states or public.|
|2. Companies live by the profit motive. They exist to make money.||2. Under a socialist system everyone works for wealth that is in turn distributed to everyone|
|3. Prices are set by supply and demand||3. Prices are set by the government|
|4. income is set by free market forces||4. Income is equally distributed among|
MILITARY ALLIANCES OF USA
- NATO (NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANISATION) formed in 1949.
- 12 members from Europe and north America
- AIM: armed attack on any one of them would be regarded as an attack on all of them.
- Country: Belgium, Denmark, France, west Germany, Britain, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Luxembourg, Greece, Netherlands.
- SEATO (south east Asian treaty organisation).
- CENTO (central treaty organisation). Military alliance with middle east.
MILITARY ALLIANCES OF USSR
- Warsaw pact formed in 1955
- 6 members from eastern Europe and Asia
- Aim: its principal function was to counter NATO’s forces in Europe.
- Country: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, eastern Germany
WHY DID SUPER POWER NEED ALLIANCE AT ALL?
1. Important Resources
Super power need alliance so that they can extract or get important resources easily at cheap rate. the need resources like oil, material and other raw material.
2. Use of Territory
Superpower had military alliance with smaller State’s superpower could launch the weapon and troops from this country
example: (Cuba military base of USSR)
3. Economic assistance
Smaller countries used to pay for the soldier that were a part of military alliance due to this economic pressure to the super power decreased.
4. Use of location
Super power used to Spy the enemy country from smaller countries.
5. Ideological reason
Both USA and USSR want to spread their ideology. USA capitalist and USSR communist, emerges to spread their supremacy in the world.
THE REASON BEHIND THE SMALL COUNTRY TO JOIN THE POWER BLOCK.
1. Own purpose
2. security for future
4. economic aid
5. maintenance of quo status and survival
Arenas of the cold war
- arenas of the Cold War, we refer, therefore, to areas where crisis and war occurred or threatened to occur between the alliance systems but did not cross certain limits. A great many lives were lost in some of these arenas.
- The Cold War also led to several shooting wars, but it is important to note that these crises and wars did not lead to another world war.
- 1. Korean crisis (1950-1953)
- 2. Congo crisis (1960) In the Congo crisis, the UN Secretary-General (deg hamershold) played a key mediatory role.
- 3. BERLIN CRISIS (1958 – 1961)
- The berlin wall served as a symbol of the cold war.
- Built in 1961 to separate East Berlin from West Berlin.
- Germany was divided into two parts – East Germany and West Germany
- Berlin was the capital of Germany.
- The Berlin Wall symbolised the division between the capitalist and the communist world.
- This more than 150-kilometre-long wall.
- This marked the Unification of the two parts of Germany
- berlin wall fell on 9 November 1989 making a symbolic end to the cold war
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
Cuban missile crisis was started in 1962
- Cuba was a small island state which was connected to the USA.
- Cuba was an alliance with USSR.
- the president of Cuba Fidel Castro agreed to be a military base for USSR.
- The president of USSR Nikita Khrushchev decides to convert cubic into a Russian base in 1962. he placed nuclear missile in Cuba.
- The installation of these weapons put the US, for the first time, under fire from close range and nearly doubled the number of bases or cities
- After three week the president of USA John f Kennedy found that USSR plant missile in Cuba. The American became aware of it.
- For that he had a secret meeting with his officer and send their Battle ship filled with the nuclear weapon towards the USSR.
HIGH POINT OF COLD WAR
- There was a time when the battle ship of USA and USSR came across each other in Atlantic Ocean.
- At that time if you’re single bullet was fired then it built directly e indicates the third world war.
- Eventually to world great relief both sides decide to avoid war.
NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT (NAM) // CHALLENGE TO BIPOLARITY
- Non alignment movement grew into a popular international movement during cold war.
- NAM policy: staying away from alliances
- It was a third option for the newly independent countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
FIVE FOUNDER MEMBERS OF NAM
1. India Jawahar Lal Nehru
2. Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito
3. Egypt Gamal Abdul Nasir
4. Indonesia Sukarno
5. Ghana Kwame Nkrumah
DEVELOPMENT OF NAM
- The first NAM summit conference took place in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in September 1961.
- The basic concept for the group originated in 1955 during discussions that took place at the Asia Africa Bandung conference held in Indonesia.
- The first summit was attended by 25 member states
- The latest meeting, the 18th summit, was held in Azerbaijan in 2019.
- It included 120 member states and 17 observer countries.
FACTORS BEHIND THE FORMATION OF NAM
PRINCIPLES / OBJECTIVES OF NAM
1. Cooperation among NAM countries
Every country which are the part of NAM has cooperation between them. they help each other in development medically and economically.
2. Mediate between power bloc
(Jawaharlal Nehru — one of the key leaders of the NAM — played a crucial role in mediating between the North Koreas and South Koreas)
3. Third world option
Nam it was a third option for the newly independent countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
4. Independent foreign policy
NAM had independent foreign policy. Nam countries respect for sovereignty, sovereign equality and territorial integrity of all states.
5. World peace
Nam has played an active role in preserving world peace. It prohibited invasion of any country, promoted disarmament and a sovereign world order.
6. Respect for the principles enshrined in the charter of the United Nations and international law.
7. NAM countries oppose the policy of imperialism, disarmament and colour-based discrimination
NAM IS NOT ISOLATIONISM
- Non-alignment is not isolationism since isolationism means remaining aloof from world affairs.
- Ex: us from the American war of independence in 1787 up to the beginning of the first world war.
- Non-aligned countries, including India, played an active role in mediating between the two rival alliances in the cause of peace and stability
NON-ALIGNMENT IS ALSO NOT NEUTRALITY
- Neutrality refers principally to a policy of staying out of war.
- States practising neutrality are not required to help end a war.
- They do not get involved in wars and do not take any position on the appropriateness or morality of a war.
- Non-aligned states, including India, were actually involved in wars they also worked to prevent war between others and tried to end wars that had broken out.
INDIA AND COLD WAR / NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
- India plays a crucial role in the cold war.
- India being a founder and largest member in NAM
What was India’s foreign policy towards the US and USSR during the Cold War era? Do you think that this policy helped India’s interests?
How did India A crucial role in the non-aligned movement during the cold war period explain?
1. India staying away from the two alliances
2. Mediate between power bloc
3. India raised its voice against the newly decolonised countries becoming part of these alliances.
4. Independent foreign policy
5. World peace
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF INDIAN NON-ALIGNED POLICY
1. India free from the pressure of both the superpowers
2. India used its resources for itself
3. India’s international image has increased
4. India could adopt its own independent foreign policy
5. India focused on protecting its country and national interest
CRITICISM OF INDIA’S NON-ALIGNED POLICY
1. Critics argue that India’s policy remained unprincipled
2. India signed the Treaty of Friendship in August 1971 with the USSR for 20 years. This was regarded, particularly by outside observers, as virtually joining the Soviet alliance system.
RELEVANCE OF NAM
NAM continues to hold relevance as a platform and due to its principles.
1. World peace
NAM has played an active role in preserving world peace. It still stands by its founding principles, idea and purpose i.e., to establish the peaceful and prosperous world.
2. Territorial integrity and sovereignty
NAM stands with this principle and proved its repeated relevance with the idea of preserving the independence of every nation.
3. Third World nations
Third world countries fighting against socio-economic problems since they have been exploited for a long time by other developed nations, NAM acted as a protector for these small countries against the western hegemony.
4. Support of UN
NAM’s total strength compromises of 118 developing countries and most of them being a member of UN General Assembly. It represents two third members of general assembly, hence NAM members act as important vote blocking group in UN.
5. Equitable world order
NAM promotes equitable world order. It can act as a bridge between the political and ideological differences existing in the international environment.
6. Sustainable development
NAM supported the concept of sustainable development and can lead the world toward sustainability. Can be used as larger platform to make consensus on global burning issues like climate change, migration and global terrorism.
7. Interest of developing countries
8. Cultural diversity and human rights
What do you think about the statement that nam has become irrelevant today? Give reasons to support your opinion.
The statement that Nam has become irrelevant today is not correct the reason for is as given below
1. World peace
2. Support of UN
3. Third World nations
4. Territorial integrity and sovereignty
5. Economic growth
6. Cultural diversity and human rights
The Cold War produced arms race as well as arms control. What were the reasons for both these developments?
- Arm race was done just show their supremacy.
- both USA and USSR produce weapon for their safety as well as to create the environment of fear.
- they both want to spread their ideology all over the world
- Ex: Cuban missile crisis
- Arm control was started in the 1960.
- The logic of deterrence introduced which state that both USA and USSR had equal amount of weapon and power then there is no logic of fighting.
- Both gonna face some loss and no one gonna win
SOME TREATY WAS SIGNED BETWEEN USA AND USSR
1. LIMITED TEST BAN TREATY (LTBT)
Banned nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water. Signed by the US, UK and USSR in Moscow on 5 August 1963. Entered into force on 10 October 1963.
2. NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY (NPT)
nuclear weapon state is one which has manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device prior to 1 January 1967. So, there are five nuclear weapon states: US, USSR (later Russia), Britain, France and China. Signed in Washington, London, and Moscow on 1 July 1968. Entered into force on 5 March 1970. Extended indefinitely in 1995
3. STRATEGIC ARMS LIMITATION TALKS (SALT)
4. STRATEGIC ARMS REDUCTION TREATY (START)