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Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Case Study Questions Class 10 Social Science
1. Read the source given below and answer the following questions:
Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family – should be preserved. Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of prerevolutionary days. Rather, they realised, from the changes initiated by Napoleon, that modernisation could in fact strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy. It could make state power more effective and strong. A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe. In 1815, representatives of the European powers – Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria – who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The delegates drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power, and France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) Who among the following was associated with the Treaty of Vienna of 1815?
(b) Duke Metternich
(c) Louis Philippe
(d) Victor Emmaunel II
(ii) After the Napoleon which dynasty was restored in France?
(d) none of the above
(iii) Why was the treaty of Vienna (1815) drawn up?
(a) To establish tariff barriers
(b) To restore the monarchies
(c) To divide the German Confederation of 39 states
(d) To establish democracies
(iv) Which of the following countries did not attend the Congress of Vienna?
2. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. He had also formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goals. The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848 meant that the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler King Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through war. In the eyes of the ruling elites of this region, a unified Italy offered them the possibility of economic development and political dominance. Chief Minister Cavour who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers. In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy. However, much of the Italian population, among whom rates of illiteracy were very high, remained blissfully unaware of liberalnationalist ideology.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) Cavour’s contribution to Italian unification was:
(a) Diplomatic alliance with the enemies of Austria
(b) War with Austrian and Bourbons
(c) Diplomatic alliance with France in 1859 and strengthening Sardinia and Piedmont
(d) Defeated the Bourbon Kings
(ii) Who amongst the following the Italian leaders was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat?
(d) Victor Emmanuel II
(iii) Who was proclaimed King of united Italy in 1861?
(a) Victor Emmanuel II
(b) Louis Philippe
(iv) Which one of the following is true regarding the ideas promoted by Mazzini?
(a) opposition to monarchy and support to democratic republic
(b) to establish liberty and freedom under a monarchy
(c) disintegration of the German confederation under 39 states
(d) censorship of newspapers, books, plays and songs
3. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans. The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive. All through the nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire had sought to strengthen itself through modernisation and internal reforms but with very little success. One by one, its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence. The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers. Hence the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long-lost independence.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area of _____________.
(a) Ottoman Empire
(ii) The Ottoman Empire sought to strengthen itself through:
(b) internal reforms
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) none of the above
(iii) The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism was responsible for:
(a) disintegration of Greece
(b) Balkans disintegration from the Ottoman Empire
(c) integration of Macedonia
(d) none of the above
(iv) The Balkan people based their claims for __________ or __________ on nationality.
(a) independence, political rights
(b) power sharing, federalism
(c) secularism, political rights
(d) modernisation, strength
4. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
When the news of the events in France reached the different cities of Europe, students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs. Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s. With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad. Within the wide swathe of territory that came under his control, Napoleon set about introducing many of the reforms that he had already introduced in France. Through a return to monarchy Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient. The Civil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This Code was exported to the regions under French control. In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) Which one of the following was not the feature of Napoleonic Code?
(a) Equality before the law
(b) Universal Adult Franchise
(c) Right to Property
(d) Privileges based on birth
(ii) Match the following
|1. Civil code||(a) Napoleon|
|2. Jacobins||(b) carried the idea of nationalism abroad|
|3. Destroyed democracy||(c) Napoleonic code in France|
|4. French armies||(d) political club|
Choose the correct option:
(a) 1-(c), 2-(d), 3-(a), 4-(b)
(b) 1-(b), 2-(c), 3-(a), 4-(d)
(c) 1-(a), 2-(c), 3-(d), 4-(b)
(d) 1-(b), 2-(a), 3-(d), 4-(c)
(iii) The Napoleonic Code was exported to which of the following regions?
(c) Regions under French control
(iv) The Civil Code of 1804 in France is usually known as:
(a) The French Revolutionary Code
(b) Napoleonic Code
(c) European Imperial Code
(d) The French Civil Code
5. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
While it is easy enough to represent a ruler through a portrait or a statue, how does one go about giving a face to a nation? Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries found a way out by personifying a nation. In other words they represented a country as if it were a person. Nations were then portrayed as female figures. The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life; rather it sought to give the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form. That is, the female figure became an allegory of the nation. You will recall that during the French Revolution artists used the female allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic. These ideals were represented through specific objects or symbols. As you would remember, the attributes of Liberty are the red cap, or the broken chain, while Justice is generally a blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales. Similar female allegories were invented by artists in the nineteenth century to represent the nation. In France she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) What did Germania symbolise?
(a) French nation
(b) German nation
(c) British nation
(d) None of the above
(ii) The allegory of the German nation who wears a crown of oak leaves was a:
(b) Union Jack
(iii) What does a blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales symbolise?
(iv) Which of the given aspects signifies the image of ‘Germania’?
(a) Fold and Cultural Tradition
(b) Auterity and Asceticism
(c) Revenge and Vengeance
(d) Heroism and Justice
6. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
From the very beginning, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard. The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation. The revolutionaries further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the peoples of Europe from despotism, in other words to help other peoples of Europe to become nations. When the news of the events in France reached the different cities of Europe, students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs. Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s. With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) The first clear expression of nationalism came with:
(a) The American Revolution
(b) The French Revolution
(c) The Russian Revolution
(d) The Industrial Revolution
(ii) The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and it was renamed as:
(a) National Assembly
(b) Body of Executives
(c) Rule of Directory
(d) None of these
(iii) The political and constitutional changes brought about by the French Revolution were:
(a) it ended the absolute monarchy.
(b) it transferred power to a body of the French citizens.
(c) it proclaimed that henceforth people would constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
(d) all the above.
(iv) The ideas of a United Community enjoying equal rights under a Constitution were expressed by the French as:
(a) La Patrie
(b) Le Citoyen
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. What was the meaning of liberalism in the early nineteenth century in Europe?
Explain the meaning of ‘liberalism’.
Answer: In the early nineteenth century in Europe, liberalism stood for freedom of the individual and equality of all before the law.
Question. Why did Slavic nationalist struggle in the 19th century? Give one reason.
Answer: To define their identity and independence.
Question. Name the Act which resulted in the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
Answer: The Act Of Union 1707 resulted in the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
Question. Who became the allegory of the German nation?
Answer: Germania became the allegory of the German nation.
Question. Why did most ‘conservative regimes’ impose censorship laws to control printed material associated with the French Revolution in 1815?
Answer: Most ‘conservative regimes’ imposed censorship laws to control printed material associated with the French Revolution in 1815 because these states were autocratic and thus wanted to preserve the traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the church, social hierarchies, etc. while freedom of press, if given, would lead to wide circulation of revolutionary ideas. So, censorship was imposed.
Question. What was the main aim of the French revolutionaries ?
Answer: The main aim of French revolutionaries was: To create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
Question. What is the meaning of concentration camps?
Answer: A prison where people are detained without due process of law.
Question. Which country did the artist Frederic Sorrieu belong?
Answer: Frederic Sorrieu belonged to France.
Question. Which nation was identifiable in the revolutionary tricolour in Sorrieu’s utopian vision?
Answer: The French nation was identifiable in the revolutionary tricolour in Sorrieu’s utopian vision.
Question. Examine the significance of the Statue of Liberty in Frederic Sorrieu’s paintings, ‘The Dream of Worldwide Democratic and Social Republics’
Answer: The Statue of Liberty has been used as an allegory to signify liberty.
The painting shows independent nations marching towards the Statue of Liberty, therefore symbolising fraternity among the nations of the world.
Question. Why big European powers met in Berlin in 1885?
Answer: European powers met in Berlin in 1885 to complete the carving up of Africa among them.
Question. Explain the aim to form Zollverein, a customs union, in 1834 in Germany.
Answer: The aim to form Zollverein (custom union) in 1834 in Germany was to bind Germany economically into a nation.
Question. Why were the Vietnamese provinces like Nghe An and Ha Tinh called as ‘‘electrical fuses’’?
Answer: Vietnamese provinces as electrical fuses: These provinces were among the poorest with old radical tradition, when the system was under pressure they were the first to blow.
Question. Who implemented the Civil Code of 1804 in France?
Answer: Napoleon Bonaparte implemented the Civil Code of 1804 in France.
Question. Name the Treaty of 1832 that recognised Greece as an independent nation.
Answer: The Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.
Question. Study the picture and answer the question that follows.
Explain as to what does this image of ‘The courier of Rhineland’ say about Napoleon?
Answer: This picture shows the loss of territories under Napoleon after his defeat at Battle of Leipzig in 1813.
Explanation: Napoleon in this picture is shown as a postman on his way back to France after he lost the battle of Leipzig in 1813. Each letter dropping out of his bag shows the names of the territories he lost after this battle.
Question. Why was Otto Von Bismarck considered as the architect of the unified Germany ?
Answer: Otto Von Bismark as the architect of the unified Germany: He carried out unification with the help of Prussian army and bureaucracy.
Question. Who was called as the architect of Germany’s unification?
Answer: Otto Von Bismarck.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
Through a return to monarchy, Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient. The Civil Code of 1804 usually known as the Napoleonic Code did away with all privileges based on birth.
What changes did the Napoleonic Code bring to the existing social order?
Answer: The Napoleonic Code of 1804 ended all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law as well as secured their right to property.
This Code was exported to various regions under French control. For example, in Switzerland, Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions.
He abolished the feudal system, freeing peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. He saved the serfs from being tortured and worked for their betterment. In the towns too,
Transport and communication system were improved.
Question. “Ideas of national unity in early nineteenth century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of Liberalism.” Analyse the statement.
Answer: Ideas of national unity in early nineteenth century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of Liberalism in the following ways:
(1) Liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before law. It promoted equality and in turn, sentiments of national unity were invoked among Europeans.
(2) It emphasised on the concept of government by consent and gave the citizens a chance to choose their leaders and express their opinions. This made them feel closer to their nation.
(3) It stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, thereby removing inherent prejudices in the European society.
(4) It believed in a constitution-led, representa-tive government which stood for equality and social justice in general.
(5) It emphasised the inviolability of private property, rise of socialism and welfare state.
Question. Describe the process of unification of Italy.
Answer: Italy was unified after numerous struggles and movements as described below:
(1) Italy had a long history of political fragmentation among various dynastic states. Sardinia Piedmont was the only one of seven states ruled by an Italian princely house.
(2) Other regions were ruled by non-Italian rulers. The Italian language had multiple regional and local variations.
(3) In 1830, Giuseppe Mazzini established a secret society called Young Italy and tried to bring about a revolutionary uprising but failed. Thereafter, war the only resort.
(4) Chief Minister Cavour led the movement of unification and diplomatically joined Sardinia-Piedmont, in an alliance with France after defeating the Austrian forces in 1859..
(5) Armed volunteers led by Giuseppe Garibaldi also supported the troops and they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. They were supported by peasants in driving out Spanish rulers.
(6) After continuous struggles, Victor Emmanuel II was finally declared the king of unified Italy in 1861.
Question. Describe any three conditions that led to the formation of the British nation state.
Answer: Conditions that led to the formation of the British nation state.
(1) The Protestant movement which led to the formation of the Church of England became distinct from the Catholic Church.
(2) The death of Queen Elizabeth I united the English and Scottish crowns into a single British crown.
(3) The Glorious revolution in which the Parliament overthrew King James II and handed the crown to William of Orange.
Henceforth, Britain was a constitutional monarchy with real power exercised by the Parliament.
Question. Describe any three features of Napoleonic Code.
Answer: Features of Napoleonic Code are:
(1) It abolished the feudal system that prevailed in many parts of Europe.
(2) It established equality before the law.
(3) Under this, ‘Right to Property’ was also given.
(4) It abolished serfdom and manorial dues.
(5) It abolished all the privileges that were given by birth.
Question. Highlight any three measures and practices that French revolutionaries introduced to create a sense of collective identity among the French.
Describe any three steps taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
Answer: To create a sense of collective identity among the French, French revolutionaries took various steps:
(1) The ideas of La Patrie (the fatherland) and La Citoyen (the citizen) were emphasised to develop a feeling of brotherhood, equality and belongingness among the French.
(2) To invoke feelings of patriotism and national unity, new hyms were composed, oaths were taken and martyrs were commemorated publically. Laws were reformulated to promote equality and uniformity.
(3) A new French flag (the tricolor), which brought about the emotions of pride and became a symbol of their nationality, was chosen.
(4) An elected body of citizens was renamed as National Assembly. Equal representation was guaranteed.
Question. How was the French part of Hanoi different from the native quarter ? Explain.
Answer: Hanoi different from the native part:
(1) Latest ideas about architecture and engineering skills were there in Hanoi while native parts were not designed well.
(2) Hanoi was built as a beautiful and clean city with wide avenues and sewer system while the native part was not provided with any modern facility.
(3) Sewer system was in modern city while native area did not have such facilities.
Question. Describe the role of Otto von Bismarck in the making of Germany.
Answer: The role of Otto von Bismarck in the making of Germany is as follows:
Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who, in 1848, tried to unite the different regions of Germany into a nation state governed by an elected parliament.
The initiative of German unification was ultimately taken on by the Prussian Chief Minister, Otto von Bismarck, who was also the architect of this process. He planned and executed the entire process with help from the Prussian Army and bureaucracy.
Otto Von Bismarck led various wars between Prussia and armies of Austria, Spanish Bourbon kings, etc.
The process of unification under the leadership of Otto Von Bismarck ended in Prussian victory after these wars over a period of seven years.
Question. ‘Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent.’ Justify the statement with arguments.
Answer: A landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent of Europe because
(1) The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions
(2) They had their own estates in the countryside and houses in the towns
(3) They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and in high society.
(4) Their families were often connected by ties of marriages.
Question. How did Paul Bernard argue in favour of economic development of Vietnam ? Explain.
Answer: Paul Bernard’s arguments in favour of economic development of Vietnam:
(1) He argued that the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits.
(2) Economy was developed and the standard of living of the people improved, they would buy more goods.
(3) The market would consequently expand, leading to better profits for French business.
(4) To reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity it was necessary to carry out land reforms.
(5) To ensure suffcient e mployment, industria- lisation would create more jobs.
Question. How did Britain come into existence as a nation state? Explain.
Answer: Before the eighteenth century, there were different ethnic identities with their own culture and politics – English, Welsh, Scots, or Irish. As the English nation’s wealth and power increased, its influence over other island nations also increased.
English Parliament had taken the power from the monarchy in 1688. It became instrumental in building the nation state of Britain, with England at its centre.
The United Kingdom of Britain was established through the Act of Union in 1707 between England and Scotland. Scotland eventually got suppressed by the English politically and culturally.
Question. How did female figures become an allegory of the nation during the nineteenth century in Europe? Analyse.
Answer: Female figures become an allegory of the nation during the nineteenth century in Europe in the following ways:
(1) Artists, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, often made efforts to represent a country as if it were a person. Female figures were chosen to express an abstract idea of a nation. These female figures, thus, became an allegory of the nation.
(2) In France, the female figure was christened Marianne, which was characterised by liberty and the republic through the red cap, the tricolour and the cockade. Statues of Marianne stood in public squares to remind people of the national symbol of unity.
(3) In Germany, the female figure – Germania – became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania wore the crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stood for heroism.
Question. How did nationalism develop through culture in Europe ? Explain.
“Culture played an important role in the development of nationalism in Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.” Support the statement with examples.
Answer: Nationalism developed through culture in Europe:
(1) Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation, art and poetry, stories and music helped to express and shape nationalist feelings.
(2) Romanticism a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets generally criticized the glorification of reason and science and focussed instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings.
(3) German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people- das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of a nation was popularized.
(4) The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore was used to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterates.
Question. Ideas of national unity in early nineteenth century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. What did it mean for the middle class in France? Explain.
Describe the ideology of liberalism during early 19th century.
Answer: Ideology of liberalism in France:
(1) For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.
(2) Politically it emphasized the right to vote, government by consent and universal suffrage.
(3) It stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges.
(4) Asked for constitution and representative government through parliament.
Question. What were the main provisions of the Treaty of Vienna held in 1815?
Answer: Provisions of the Treaty of Vienna held in 1815:
(1) The Bourbon dynasty was restored to power.
(2) France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
(3) A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future.
(4) Prussia was given new territories including Saxony on the western border, Austria to control northern Italy, Russia to get Poland while no change was done in German confederation of 39 states.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. ‘The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe.’ Examine.
Answer: Europe faced economic hardships in the 1830s because of the following reasons:
(1) The first half of the nineteenth century
saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
(2) In most of the countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment.
(3) Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England.
(4) Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
(5) Europe was still under the aristocracy; peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
(6) The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread poverty in town and country.
Question. Who hosted Vienna Congress in 1815? Analyse the main changes brought by the Vienna Treaty.
Answer: Chancellor Duke Metternich hosted Vienna Congress in 1815. The following changes were made:
(1) The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power and France lost the territories it had annexed.
(2) A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent the French expansion in future.
(3) The kingdom of the Netherlands, which included Belgium, was set up in the North and Genoa was added to Piedmont in the South.
(4) Prussia was given important new territories on its Western frontiers.
(5) Austria was given control of Northern Italy.
(6) The German confederation of 39 states that had been set up by Napoleon was left untouched.
Question. Examine the ‘nation state building’ process in Germany after 1848.
Describe the unification process by which Germany unified as a nation state.
Answer: The process of nation state building in Germany took place in the following manner:
(1) Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle class Germans who tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation state governed by an elected parliament.
(2) The liberal initiative of nation building was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military.
(3) Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Its Chief Minister, Otto Von Bismarck was the architect of this process, which was carried out with the help of the Prussian Army and bureaucracy.
(4) Three wars for over seven years ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
(5) In January 1871, the Prussian King, William-I, was proclaimed the German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
Question. Describe any five steps taken by the French for the development of the ‘Mekong Delta Region’.
Answer: Steps taken by the French for the development of the ‘Mekong Delta region’ were:
(1) The French built canals to drain lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation
(2) The vast system of irrigation workscanals and earthworks-built mainly with forced labour increased the nice production.
(3) It allowed export of Rice to the international market.
(4) The area under Rice cultivation went up (from 2,74,000 hectares in 1873 to 2.2 million hectares in 1930).
(5) Vietnam exported 2/3 of its Rice production and became the third largest exporter of Rice in the world.
Question. Explain various stages of unification of Germany.
Answer: Unification of Germany:
(1) Prussia took over the leadership of the movement for national unification. The architect of this process was its chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
(2) Prussia had three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and Francecompleted the process of German unification.
(3) In January 1871, the Prussian King, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor. An assembly was held to proclaim the new German Empire. The process of nationbuilding demonstrated the dominance of Prussian state power.
(4) The currency, banking, legal and judicial system in Germany were modernised.
Question. Describe any five economic hardships faced by Europeans during the mid-nineteenth century.
Answer: The economic hardships faced by Europeans during the mid-nineteenth century are:
(1) As an enormous increase in population was witnessed all over Europe, there were more job seekers than employment opportunities. Population from rural areas often migrated to cities to live in overcrowded slums.
(2) Small producers in towns were faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England, where industrialisation was more advanced. For example – This was the situation in case of textile production, which was mainly carried out in homes or small workshops and was only partly mechanised.
(3) In the regions of Europe, where the aristocracy enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
(4) The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country. For example – In 1848, food shortages and widespread unemployment brought the population of Paris out on the roads.
(5) In 1845, weavers in Silesia revolted against contractors who supplied them raw material and gave them orders for finished textiles but drastically reduced their pay.
Question. “Nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment by the last quarter of the nineteenth century in Europe.” Analyse the statement with examples.
Answer: Nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment by the last quarter of the nineteenth century in Europe because:
(1) Nationalist groups became increasingly intolerant, which lead to war.
(2) Major European powers manipulated the nationalist aspirations to further their own imperialist aims.
(3) The source of nationalist tension in Europe was an area called Balkans.
(4) Idea of romantic nationalism in the Balkan together with a disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
(5) One by one, European nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.
(6) Balkan people based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality to prove that they were once interdependent but were subjugated by foreign power.
(7) Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence and the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.
Question. How did the Greek War of Independence mobilise nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe? Explain.
Answer: The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe motivated the Greeks to a start a struggle for independence in 1821. Greece had been a part of the Ottoman empire since the fifteenth century. The struggle inspired the educated elite class of Europe and filled them with nationalistic zeal. Literature mibilised public opinion to support struggle against a Muslim empire. Greek citizens who were living in exile supported them, and poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation. As a result, nationalistic sentiments were invoked among the educated elites of Greece like Lord Byron, an english poet, who raised funds and even participated in the war.
Question. Explain any five reforms introduced by Napoleon in the regions under his control.
Answer: Reforms introduced by Napoleon in the regions under his control are:
(1) The Civil Code (1804) abolished all kinds of privileges based on birth, thereby establishing equality before the law and securing the right to property.
(2) Napoleon simplified administrative divisions.
(3) The feudal system was abolished and the peasants were freed from serfdom and manorial dues. Guild restrictions were done away with.
(4) Further, the basic means of communication and transport facilities were improved to carry out smooth administration at all levels.
(5) Uniform laws were introduced and weights and measures were standardised along with a common national currency.
(6) This enabled farmers, artisans and industrialists to freely and smoothly carry out the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
Question. Describe any five measures introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
Analyse the measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
Answer: The measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people were:
(1) They introduced the ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizens) that emphasised on the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
(2) The former royal standard flag was replaced with the new tricolour French flag.
(3) They started electing the Estates General and renamed it as the National Assembly.
(4) They composed hymns, took oaths and commemorated martyrs, all in the name of the nation.
(5) They installed a centralised administrative system and formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
(6) They abolished internal custom duties and followed a uniform system of weights and measures.
(7) They discouraged speaking regional dialects and made French as the national language.
Question. Why was the period of 1848 considered as phase of the revolution of the Liberals in Europe? Explain.
Answer: The period of 1848 consider as phase of the Revolution of the Liberals in Europe:
(1) Events of February 1848 in France had brought about the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed.
(2) Germany, Italy, Poland, the Austro-Hungarian Empire – men and women of the liberal middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification.
(3) They took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demands for the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles – a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association.
(4) In the German regions a large number of political associations whose members were middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly.
(5) The middle classes who resisted the demands of workers and artisans and consequently lost their support. In the end troops were called in and the assembly was forced to disband.
(6) The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years.
(7) Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstration.
Question. Highlight the reasons for the growth of nationalist tensions in the Balkan region before the First World War.
How did Balkans become the most serious source of nationalist tension in Eurpoe after 1971? Explain.
Answer: The Balkans
(1) The Balkan was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising of modernday Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia- Herzegovina Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro. The inhabitants were called Slavs
(2) The spread of romantic nationalism lead to its disintegration.
(3) Different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity
(4) Balkan region became a region of intense conflict over expansion of territory.
(5) At the same time, the great European Powers- Russia, Germany, England and Austro-Hungary were keen on taking the control of the Balkan region, since it was important from trade point of view.
(6) This led to the series of wars in the region and finally became the cause of the First World War.
Question. Read the extract and answer the questions that follow:
The ideas of national unity in earlynineteenth- century. Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. During the nineteenth century this was a strong demand of the emerging middle classes. Napoleon had created a confederation of 39 states. Each of them had their own currency, weights and measures. A customer travelling from Hamburg to Nuremberg in 1833 to sell his goods had to pass through 11 customs barrier and pay a customs duty of about 5 percent at each one of them. Duties were often levied according to the weight or measurement of the goods. The measure of cloth, was the elle which in each region stood for a different length. An elle of textile in Frankfurt got a person 54.7 cm of cloth, in Mainz 55.1 cm, in Nuremberg 65.6 cm, in Freiburg 53.5 cm.
(A) Who was Napoleon?
(B) Explain what do you mean by Liberalism in your own words.
(C) Why was trading in nineteenth century a tedious process?
Answer: (A) Napoleon Bonaparte was a famous French statesman and military leader who led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars and conquered various countries in Europe, incorporated Napoleonic Code establishing equality before law.
(B) According to me, Liberalism stands for easing of implied restrictions, the restrictions might be political, social or even economical. To be liberal means to be more accommodative of new emerging practices. In economic sphere, it stood for freedom of markets and the abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
(C) Trading in 19th century was tedious because of the multiple units and standards of weights and measures found in each of the 39 states of the confederation created by Napoleon. Each had their own currency as well. Duties were often levied according to the weight or measurement of goods. As each region had its own system of weights and measures, it took a lot of time in conversion and final calculation.
Question. How were ideas of national unity in the early nineteenth century Europe allied to the ideology of liberalism? Explain.
Answer: The ideas of national unity in the early nineteenth century Europe allied to the ideology of liberalism in various ways:
(1) With the invention of railway, mobility was stimulated resulting in harnessing economic interest for national unification.
(2) The concept of government by consent was emphasised by liberals.
(3) Liberals supported the creation of a unified economic territory.
(4) Liberals stood for individual freedom and equality of all before law for the new middle class.
(5) Liberalism stood for the end of autocracy and special privileges.