Please refer to Class 12 Geography Sample Paper Term 2 With Solutions Set A provided below. The Sample Papers for Class 12 Geography have been prepared based on the latest pattern issued by CBSE. Students should practice these guess papers for class 12 Geography to gain more practice and get better marks in examinations. The Term 2 Sample Papers for Geography Standard 12 will help you to understand the type of questions which can be asked in upcoming examinations.
Term 2 Sample Paper for Class 12 Geography With Solutions Set A
SECTION – A
1. Explain the prominent features of Traditional Large Scale industrial regions.
Answer: Traditional industrial regions can be recognized by:
• Women constitute 16.5% of the total worker population in the economy.
• Problems of unemployment, emigration and derelict land areas caused by closure of factories.
2. Define Tertiary Activities.
Answer: Tertiary activities involve the commercial output of services rather than the production of tangible goods.
3. Differentiate between retail trading and wholesale trading.
Differentiate between departmental stores and chain stores.
Answer: The business activities concerned with the sale of goods directly to the consumers known as retail
trading, while wholesale trading constitutes bulk business through numerous intermediary merchants.
Departmental stores delegate the responsibility and authority to departmental heads for purchasing of commodities, while chain stores are able to purchase merchandise most economically, often going so far as to direct the goods to be manufactured to their specifications.
SECTION – B
(SOURCE BASED QUESTION)
4. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follows:
Manufacturing literally means ‘to make by hand’. However, now it includes goods ’made by machines’. It is essentially a process which involves transforming raw materials into finished goods of higher value for sale in local or distant markets. Conceptually, an industry is a geographically located manufacturing unit maintaining books of accounts and records under a management system. As the term industry is comprehensive, it is also used as synonymous with ‘manufacturing’. When one uses terms like ‘steel industry’ and ‘chemical industry’, one
thinks of factories and processes. But there are many secondary activities which are not carried on in factories such as what is now called the ‘entertainment industry’ and ‘Tourism industry’, etc. So for clarity, the longer expression ‘manufacturing industry’ is used.
4.1. What do you understand by the term Manufacturing?
Answer: Manufacturing literally means ‘to make by hand’. However, now it includes goods ’made by machines’.
4.2. “Manufacturing involves value addition.” Explain with any one suitable example.
Answer: It is essentially a process which involves transforming raw materials into finished goods of higher value. Example; Raw cotton is transformed to more valuable threads and then threads are further transformed into more valuable fabric.
4.3. Name two industries which provide services rather than production of goods.
Answer: The ‘entertainment industry’ and ‘Tourism industry’
SECTION – C
5. Road transport plays a vital role in the promotion of trade and tourism in the world. Support this statement with three suitable arguments.
Answer: Transport is a service or facility by which people, materials and manufactured goods are physically carried from one location to another.
It is an organized industry created to satisfy man’s basic need of mobility.
Modern society requires speedy and efficient transport systems to assist in the production, distribution and consumption of goods.
At every stage in this complex system, the value of the material is significantly enhanced by transportation.
The opening-up of tourist areas has been aided by improvement in transport facilities. Travel is easier by car, with better road systems.
6. Satellites and computers have brought revolutionary changes in the present life of the people. Elaborate the statement with three suitable examples.
Evaluate the role and importance of roads in the economic development of India?
Answer: Satellites touch human lives in many ways. Every time we use a cell phone to call a friend, send an SMS or watch a popular programme on cable television, we are using satellite communication.
These have rendered the unit cost and time of communication invariant in terms of distance.
Today weather forecasting through television is a boon in saving the loss of life and property.
As billions use the Internet each year, cyberspace will expand the contemporary economic and social space of humans through email, e-commerce, e-learning and e-governance.
The Internet together with fax, television and radio will be accessible to more and more people cutting across place and time.
It is these modern communication systems, more than transportation that has made the concept of global village a reality
India has the 2nd largest road network in the world.
Importance of Roadways in India:
(i) It provides better connectivity between Rural and Urban areas and hence advancement of Rural India occurs.
(ii) During the transportation of goods from ports to their destination it is very important to have better Road connectivity so that time, fuel and money can be saved and hence ultimate economic development occurs.
(iii) To link every remotest area (J&K, Northeast part, mountainous regions etc) with the mainstream of economy it’s very much important to have better connectivity so that overall development of those people can be ensured.
(iv) Even road connectivity is very important in linking Intra-state Urban areas and Inter-states for better transportation of various goods and services and hence for overall development in terms of saving time, money etc and reduction in pollution and CO2 emission level.
(v) Rural economy would be connected with urban economy.
(vi) Faster accessibility of health, education and other facilities.
(vii) Import and export will improve.
(viii) Internal security will improve. If it is improved in North Eastern states and militancy affected areas.
(ix) Social connectivity will improve
SECTION – D
7. How do Quaternary services differ from Tertiary services? Give three reasons why the service sector in developing and developed countries is growing faster than the manufacturing sector?
Answer: The activities which involve intangible outputs and are relatively attached from material production such as the services of a technician or a teacher are referred to as Tertiary activities.
The activities concerning knowledge such as education, information, research and development and more intellectual activities where the major task is to think, research and develop ideas are quaternary activities.
The rising per capita income in both, developed and developing countries has generated proportionately larger increases in the many kinds of services.
There is also demand for educational services at all levels with the increase in the demand for literacy and computer skills at the workplace.
Demand for non-direct production workers is also increasing proportionally in most manufacturing companies as these companies need more clerical staff, sales people, research and other workers.
Medical services have also increased in Europe, North America and Japan because of an increase in demand for medical care from the elderly population.
The increasing value of time has led to more household functions being accomplished outside of home.
8. How is the use of plastic bags harmful for environmental degradation? Evaluate it by citing suitable reasons.
The disposal of urban waste has become a serious concern for the local authorities. Analyze the statement with suitable examples.
Answer: Plastic is a non-biodegradable substance and its use and production should be minimum. Plastic debris is found absolutely everywhere, from the Arctic to Antarctica. It clogs street drains in our cities; it litters campgrounds and national parks, and is even piling up on Mount Everest. But thanks to runoff, and to our fondness for directly dumping our trash into the nearest river or lake, plastic is growing increasingly common in the world’s oceans. When plastics are broken down, this simply means one large piece of plastic is reduced into a bunch of smaller pieces of plastic. These smaller pieces of plastic can be consumed by smaller animals, but are still indigestible. It affects all organisms in the food chain from tiny species like plankton through to whales. Toxins work their way up the food chain when plastic is ingested and can even be present in the fish people eat. From cell phones to bicycle helmets to IV bags, plastic has molded society in ways that make life easier and safer. But the synthetic material also has left harmful imprints on the environment.
● Chemicals added to plastics are absorbed by human bodies. Some of these compounds have been found to alter hormones or have other potential human health effects.
● Plastic debris, laced with chemicals and often ingested by marine animals, can injure or poison wildlife.
● Floating plastic waste, which can survive for thousands of years in water, serves as mini transportation devices for invasive species, disrupting habitats.
● Plastic buried deep in landfills can leach harmful chemicals that spread into groundwater.
● Around 4 percent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics, and a similar amount is consumed as energy in the process.
The problem of overcrowded, congested and insufficient infrastructure of urban areas results in accumulation of huge urban waste. There are two sources of urban waste. Household or domestic sources and industrial or commercial sources. The mismanagement of urban waste disposal is a serious problem in big cities.
Tons of waste come out daily in metropolitan cities and are burnt. The smoke released from the waste pollutes the air. Lack of sewers or other means to dispose of human excretes safely and the inadequacy of garbage collection sources adds to water pollution.
The concentration of industrial units in and around urban centres gives rise to a series of environmental problems.
Dumping of industrial waste into rivers is the major cause of water pollution. The solid waste generation continues to increase in both absolute and per capita in cities.
This improper disposal of solid waste attracts rodents and flies which spread diseases. The thermal plants release a lot of smoke and ash in the air. For example, a plant producing 500mw electricity releases 2000 tons of ash which is difficult to manage.
9. Attaining Sustainable development in the command area requires major thrust upon the measures to achieve ecological sustainability. Highlight the measures proposed to promote sustainable development in the command area of Indira Gandhi Rajasthan Canal.
Answer: Seven measures proposed to promote sustainable development in the command area are meant to restore ecological balance.
(i) The first requirement is strict implementation of water management policy. The canal project envisages protective irrigation in Stage-I and extensive irrigation of crops and pasture
development in Stage-II.
(ii) In general, the cropping pattern shall not include water intensive crops. It shall be adhered to and people shall be encouraged to grow plantation crops such as citrus fruits.
(iii) The CAD programmes such as lining of water courses, land development and leveling and warabandi system (equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet) shall be effectively implemented to reduce the conveyance loss of water.
(iv) The areas affected by water logging and soil salinity shall be reclaimed.
(v) The eco-development through afforestation, shelterbelt plantation and pasture development is necessary particularly in the fragile environment of Stage-II.
(vi) The social sustainability in the region can be achieved only if the land allottees having poor economic background are provided adequate financial and institutional support for cultivation of land.
(vii) The economic sustainability in the region cannot be attained only through development of agriculture and animal husbandry. The agricultural and allied activities have to develop along with other sectors of the economy. This shall lead to diversification of economic base and establishment of functional linkages between basic villages, agro-service centers and market centers.
SECTION – E
10. On the outline map of India indicate and mark the following features (Attempt any 5).
(i) Iron ore mines of Chhattisgarh (ii) Oil Refinery located in Uttar Pradesh.
(iii) The largest Lignite coal mines. (iv) Easternmost terminal of East-West Corridor
(v) Southernmost Metropolitan city connected by Golden Quadrilateral.
(vi) Oldest Copper mines of Rajasthan
Answer: (i) Iron ore mines located in Southern most part of Chhattisgarh – (Bailadila)
(ii) Oil Refinery located in Uttar Pradesh. – (Mathura)
(iii) The largest Lignite coal mines. – (Neyveli)
(iv) Easternmost terminal of East-West Corridor. – (Silchar)
(v) Southern Metropolitan city connected by Golden Quadrilateral. – (Chennai)
(vi) Oldest Copper mines of Rajasthan – (Khetri)