Question. Which of the following is correct about juxta medullary nephrons?
(a) Vasa recta is prominent
(b) Loop of henle is long
(c) NaCl is returned to intestitium by ascending limb of vasa recta
Question. Vasa recta is
(a) L- shaped
(b) S – shaped
(c) U – shaped
(d) J – shaped
Question. Which of the following is incorrect?
(a) Blood vessels leading to glomerulus is called arteriole
(b) Vasa recta, peritubular capillaries, glomerulus all have blood
(c) Cortical nephron has no or highly reduced vasa recta
(d) Vasa recta runs parallel to Henle’s loop in juxta medullary nephrons
Question. Math the column
|Column – I||Column – II|
|A. PCT||I. Concentrated urine formation|
|B. DCT||II. Filtration urine formation|
|C. Loop of henle||III. Reabsorption of 70-80% electrocytes|
|D. Counter-current mechanism||IV. Ionic balance|
|E. Renal corpuscle||V. Maintenance of conc. gradient in medulla|
(a) A – III, B – IV, C – I, D – V, E – II
(b) A – III, B – V, C – IV, D – II, E – I
(c) A – I, B – III, C – II, D – V, E – IV
(d) A – III, B – I, C – IV, D – V, E – II
Question. The glomerular capillaries cause filtration of blood through _____ layers
Question. On average ____ ml of blood is filtrated by the kidney per minute which constitute roughly _____ of blood pumped out by each ventricle of heart in a minute
(a) 125, 1/6th
(b) 100-125 ml, 1/6th
(c) 1100-1200 ml, 1/5th
Question. The GFR/day in a healthy adult is __ litre
Question. Of the filtrate, nearly how much of it is reabsorbed by the renal tubules
Question. Which of the following statements about PCT is false?
(a) It is lined by simple cuboidal brush border epithellium which increses the surface area
(b) Nearly all the essential nutrients 70-80% electorlytes, 70% H2O are reabsorbed by PCT
(c) PCT is not the site of selective secretion
(d) PCT helps to maintain the pH and ionic balance of body fluids
Question. If the loop of henle were absent from mammalian nephron.which of the following is to be expected?
(a) The urine will be more dilute
(b) There will be no urnie formation
(c) The urine will be nore concentrated
(d) There wil be hardly any change in quality and quantity of urine fomed
Question. Ammonia and urea are waste products derived from metabolic break down of
Question. The term ammonotellic and ureotellic and uricotellic are used to describe
(a) Modes if excretory system development
(b) The actions of hormone in Excretory system
(c) The types of nitrogenous waste produced by various classes of vertebrates
(d) Modifications of kidney tubules to enhance system
Question. Which of the following is wrong?
(a) Kidney doesn’t play any significant role in removal of ammonia
(b) Ureotelic animal excrete most of the nitrogenous waste as urea
(c) Ammonia and urea are the waste product derived from the metabolic breakdown of proteins
(d) None of the following
Question. Which of the following group of animals is uricotellic?
(c) Birds and land snails
Question. The medullary gradient is mainly caused by
(a) Urea an K+
(b) H+ and K+
(c) NaCl and urea
(d) Urea and H+
Question. Least toxic nitrogenous waste is
(c) Uric acid
(d) NH3 and urea
Question. Terrestrial organisms must conserve water the least amount of water is lost with the excretion of which nitrogenous waste products
(b) Uric acid
Question. Which of the following is correct about protnephridia/flame cells?
(a) Are excretory structures in platyhelminthes, rotifiers and some annelids
(b) Are excretory structures in cephalochoradates e.g. amphioxus
(c) Are primarily concerned with ionic and fluid volume regulation i.e. osmoregulation
Question. Which of the following statement is wrong about human excretory system?
(a) Excretory system consists of one pair of bean shaped kidney, one pair or ureter, a urinary bladder and a urethra
(b) Kidneys are situated between 12th thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebrate close to dorsal wall in abdominal cavity
(c) Right kidney is al ittle higher level than the left one
Question. The part of kidney, gateway for ureter, nerves and blood vessels is
(b) Renal pore
(c) Minore calyx
(d) Major calyx
Question. Which of the statement is false about Outer cortex and inner medulla are the two zones in kidney?
A. Medulla is divided into about 8 to 18 renal pyramids
B. Pyramids projects into calyx
C. Inward extension of cortex between the pyramids is called renal columns of bertini
(a) A and D
(b) B and D
Question. Which one of the following is the structural and functional unit of kidney?
(b) Urinary bladder
(c) Renal column
Question. Which one of the following is a tube that carries urine from kidney to urinary bladder?
(a) Loop of henle
Question. All of the following structures are situated in the renal cortex except
(a) Loop of henle
(b) Malphigian corpuscle
Question. Which of the following statement is false?
(a) A nephron starts with a double walled cup like structure called Bowman’s capsule
(b) In majority of nephrons the loop of henle is too short and such nephrons are cortical nephrons
(c) Juxta medullary nephrons has long loop of henle