Please refer to Microbes in Human Welfare Class 12 Biology Important Questions given below. These solved questions for Microbes in Human Welfare have been prepared based on the latest CBSE, NCERT and KVS syllabus and books issued for the current academic year. We have provided important examination questions for Class 12 Biology all chapters.
Class 12 Biology Microbes in Human Welfare Important Questions
Objective Type Questions
Question. Which role is played by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in our stomach ?
(d) All of these
Question. The bacterium that commonly lives in animal and human intestine is
(a) Bacillus anthracis
(b) Vibrio cholerae
(c) Escherichia coli
Question. In cheese microorganisms are required for
(a) ripening only
(b) souring of milk only
(c) souring and ripening
(d) development of resistance to spoilage
Question. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is employed in production of
(d) all of these
Question. Which one of the following is used in the manufacture of alcohol ?
(b) Bread molds
(d) Slime molds
Question. Glucose fermentation by yeast yields
(a) ethanol + CO2
(b) ethanol + H2O
(c) methanol + CO2
(d) H2O + CO2
Question. Cyclosporin A is used for
(a) dissolving blood clots
(b) lowering cholesterol level
(d) enhancing tenderness of meat
Question. Statins are obtained from
(b) Mucor javanicus
(c) Monascus purpureus
(d) Clostridium butyricum
Question. Monascus purpureus is a yeast used commercially in the production of
(b) streptokinase for removing clots from the blood vessels
(c) citric acid
(d) blood cholesterol lowering statins
Question. Sewage purification is done by
Question. Primary treatment of sewage is
(a) physical process
(b) biological process
(c) chemical process
(d) biochemical process
Question. Passage of effluents into oxidation tank is for
(a) primary treatment
(b) secondary treatment
(c) tertiary treatment
(d) both (a) and (b)
Question. BOD refers to
(a) bacteria oxygen demand
(b) biochemical oxygen demand
(c) biochemical operation demand
(d) biological organism demand
Question. During sewage treatment, biogases produced include which of the following gases ?
(a) Methane, oxygen, hydrogen sulphide
(b) Hydrogen sulphide, methane, sulphur dioxide
(c) Hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen, methane
(d) Methane, hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide
Question. Methanogenic bacteria are present in
(a) anaerobic sludge
(b) rumen (a part of stomach) of cattle
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) none of the above
Question. Insect resistant transgenic cotton has been produced by inserting a piece of DNA from
(a) an insect
(b) a wild relative of cotton
(c) a bacterium
(d) a virus
Question. The free-living fungus Trichoderma can be used for
(a) killing insects.
(b) biological control of plant diseases.
(c) controlling butterfly caterpillars.
(d) producing antibiotics.
Question. Which of the following serve as biofertilizer in paddy fields?
(c) Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)
Question. Which of the following plants is used as biofertilizer ?
Question. The symbiotic association between fungi and roots of higher plants is called __________ .
Assertion/Reason Type Questions
In the following questions, a statement of Assertion is followed by a statement of Reason.
(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(b) If both Assertion and Reason are true but the Reason is not the correct explanation of the Assertion.
(c) If Assertion is true but Reason is false.
(d) If both Assertion and Reason are false.
Question. Assertion : Use of fertilizers greatly enhances crop productivity.
Reason : Irrigation is very important in increasing crop productivity.
Question. Assertion : Biopesticides help in overcoming the disadvantages of chemical pesticides.
Reason : Biopesticides are harmless as they do not cause any damage.
Very Short Answer Questions
Question. Give an example of a rod-shaped virus.
Ans. Tobacco mosaic virus.
Question. Name some traditional Indian foods made of wheat, rice and Bengal gram (or their products) which involve use of microbes.
Ans. ‘Dosa’ and ‘idli’ (from rice), bread (from wheat) and ‘dhokla’ (from Bengal gram) are the traditional Indian foods which involve use of microbes.
Question. Why is distillation required for producing certain alcoholic drinks?
Ans. Distillation increases the alcohol content in alcoholic drinks.
Question. Mention the role of cyanobacteria as a biofertiliser.
Ans. It is a biological organism that fixes atmospheric nitrogen.
Question. What would have happened if antibiotics were not discovered?
Ans. If antibiotics were not discovered, bacterial diseases would not have been controllable.
Short Answer Questions
Question. Find out the role of microbes in the following and discuss it with your teacher.
(a) Single cell protein (SCP)
Ans. (a) Single cell protein (SCP): It is a protein-rich microbial biomass which can be used as food.
SCP contains essential amino acids and low fat. Bacteria, filamentous fungi, algae, yeast,etc., are used as “single cell proteins” (SCPs). Spirulina is taken as a tablet having 60 per cent proteins, all minerals, vitamins, etc.
(b) Soil: Soil is the habitat of numerous microbes. Microbes in the soil increase the fertility of soil by decomposing organic matter. Some microbes convert nitrates into free nitrogen that escapes into atmosphere for replenishment.
Question. Your advice is sought to improve the nitrogen content of the soil to be used for cultivation of a non-leguminous terrestrial crop.
(a) Recommend two microbes that can enrich the soil with nitrogen.
(b) Why do leguminous crops not require such enrichment of the soil?
Ans. (a) Azospirillum/Azotobacter/Anabaena/Nostoc/Oscillatoria/Frankia. (Any two)
(b) Leguminous crops do not need nitrogen from soil because the nitrogen fixing bacteria (Rhizobium) are present in their root nodules, which can fix atmospheric nitrogen for the crops.
Question. What is the chemical nature of biogas? Name an organism which is known to be employed in biogas.
Ans. The biogas contains methane, CO2 and H2. Methanobacterium, a type of methanogen is employed for biogas production.
Question. How do mycorrhizae act as biofertilisers? Explain. Name a genus of fungi that forms a mycorrhizal association with plants.
Ans. Mycorrhizae is a symbiotic association of a fungus with roots of higher plants. The fungus absorbs phosphate from soil and passes it to the plant. It also provides resistance to root-borne pathogen and increase the tolerance of plant to salinity and drought. This way they act as biofertilisers.
Genus of fungi — Glomus.
Question. How was penicillin discovered?
Ans. Penicillin was an accidental discovery. Sir Alexander Fleming observed that in unwanted culture plates of Staphylococcus a mould of Penicillium was growing This mould inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus around it. Later the antibiotic penicillin was isolated from this fungus.
Question. How does the application of the fungal genus, Glomus, to the agricultural farm increase the farm output?
Ans. Glomus is a fungus which is found in symbiotic relationship with roots of seed plants. It absorbs phosphorus from the soil and passes it on to the plant, and in turn gets sugars from the plant. Due to increased availability of phosphorus there is an increase in farm output.
Question. Name any two species of fungus, which are used in the production of the antibiotics.
Ans. Two species of fungus, used in the production of the antibiotics:
(i) Penicillium notatum (for penicillin production).
(ii) Aspergillus fumigatus (for fumagillin production).
Question. How does the application of cyanobacteria help to improve agriculture output?
Ans. Cyanobacteria are autotrophic, free-living or symbiotic microbes. They can fix atmospheric nitrogen. Blue-green algae also add organic matter to the soil and increases its fertility. They replenish soil nutrients and reduce dependence on chemical fertilisers.
Question. Name the source of cyclosporin-A. How does this bioactive molecule function in our body?
Ans. Trichoderma polysporum. It acts as an immuno-suppresant and is used in organ transplant patient.
Question. List the events that reduce the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) of a primary effluent during sewage treatment.
Explain the process of secondary treatment given to the primary effluent up to the point it shows significant change in the level of biological oxygen demand (BOD) in it.
Ans. During secondary treatment of primary effluents, vigorous growth of useful aerobic microbes into flocs occur when it is agitated mechanically and air is pumped into it in a large aeration tank. These microbes while growing consume major part of the organic matter in the effluent. This significantly reduces BOD.
Question. How do mycorrhizal fungi help the plants harbouring them?
Ans. The mycorrhizal fungi absorb phosphorus from the soil and transfer them to the host cells. They also impart resistance to host plants against root pathogens. They also help plants to tolerate salinity and drought.
Question. Find out the name of the microbes from which cyclosporin A (an immuno-suppressive drug) and statins (blood cholesterol lowering agents) are obtained.
Ans. (a) Cyclosporin A is obtained from Trichoderma polysporum.
(b) Statins are obtained from the yeast Monascus purpureus.
Long Answer Questions
Question. Describe how do ‘flocs’ and ‘activated sludge’ help in sewage treatment.
Ans. Flocs are masses of aerobic bacteria associated with fungal filaments to form mesh like structures.
These aerobic microbes consume the major part of the organic matter in the effluent. This significantly reduces Biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the effluent.
A small part of the activated sludge is used as inoculum and pumped back to aeration tank. The remaining major part of the sludge is pumped into anaerobic sludge digesters where microbes or bacteria grow anaerobically to produce CH4 or H2S or CO2 or biogas.
Question. Complete the given table.
|Name of the organism||Product/Enzyme/Bioactive male cule|
Ans. (i) Citric acid
(ii) Saccharomyces cerevisiae
(iii) Trichoderma polysporum
(iv) Acetobacter aceti
Question. Cow dung and water is mixed and this slurry is fed into the biogas plant for digestion by microbes. The person performing the process shares that there is no need to provide inoculum for it, why? What is the role of microbes at the source? Under which condition will they be most active and effective?
Ans. There is no need to provide inoculum for it because the bacteria, methanogens are present in cow dung. The role of these microbes is breakdown of cellulose. These are most active in an anaerobic condition.
Question. Explain the different steps involved in sewage treatment before it can be released into natural water bodies.
Describe the process of waste-water treatment under the following heads:
(a) Primary treatment
(b) Secondary treatment
Explain the process of sewage water treatment before it can be discharged into natural water bodies. Why is this treatment essential?
Ans. Primary treatment or physical treatment
• It is the physical removal of large and small particles from sewage.
• First, the floating debris is removed by sequential filtration by passing through wire mesh screens.
• Then, the grit (soil and small pebbles) are removed by sedimentation in settling tanks. The sediment is called primary sludge and the supernatant is the effluent.
• The effluent is taken for secondary treatment.
The sewage treatment is essential before being released into water bodies so as to check water borne diseases or pathogenic organisms due to water pollution.
Question. Why should biological control of pests and pathogens be preferred to the conventional use of chemical pesticides? Explain how the following microbes act as biocontrol agents:
(a) Bacillus thuringiensis
Ans. Biological control of pests and pathogens is preferred because:
(i) The chemicals cause pollution of water bodies as well as ground water, besides getting stored in the plants.
(ii) The chemicals are toxic thus extremely harmful to human beings and other animals.
(a) Bacillus thuringiensis: Bacillus thuringiensis is available in sachets as dried spores, which are mixed with water and sprayed onto vulnerable plants. When they are eaten by the insect larvae, the toxin is released in the gut where it becomes active and kills the larvae.
B. thuringiensis toxin genes when introduced into plant, develop resistance to attack by insect pests. Specific Bt toxin genes obtained from B. thuringiensis are used in several crop plants which make them resistant to insect pest.
(b) Nucleopolyhedrovirus: These viruses are excellent candidates for species-specific, narrow spectrum insecticidal applications. This is especially desirable when beneficial insects are being conserved to aid in an overall integrated pest management (IPM) programme.
Question. Name the genus to which baculoviruses belong. Describe their role in the integrated pest management programmes.
Ans. Baculovirus belongs to the genus Nucleopolyhedrovirus. Baculoviruses are pathogens that attack insects and other arthopods. These viruses are very useful for species-specific, narrow spectrum insecticidal applications. Also, as they show no negative impacts on plants, mammals, birds, fish or even on non-target insects, they are beneficial in integrated pest management (IPM) programme in which beneficial insects are conserved.
Question. Explain the significant role of the genus Nucleopolyhedrovirus in an ecological sensitive area.
Ans. Baculoviruses are pathogens that attack insects and other arthropods. Baculoviruses of genus Nucleopolyhedrovirus are used as biological control agents. They are excellent candidates for species-specific, narrow spectrum insecticidal applications. They do not show negative impact on plants, mammals, birds, non-target insects. Therefore, they are used as biological control agents.
Importance in organic farming: It is desirable when beneficial insects are being conserved to aid in an overall Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programme. In organic farming, it is used to conserve beneficial insects and kills harmful ones.