Resources and Development Class 10 Social Science Notes and Questions

Notes Class 10 Revision Notes

Please refer to Resources and Development Class 10 Social Science notes and questions with solutions below. These revision notes and important examination questions have been prepared based on the latest Social Science books for Class 10. You can go through the questions and solutions below which will help you to get better marks in your examinations.

Class 10 Social Science Resources and Development Notes and Questions

Resource Planning in India : It involves :

1. Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country.
2. Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up far implementing resource development plans.
3. Matching the resources development plans with over all national development plans.

Land use Pattern in India :

– Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq. km.
– Land use data however is available only for 93% of the total area because the land use reporting far most of the North-East States except Assam has not been done fully.
– Some area of Jammu and Kashmir occupied by Pakistan and China have also not been surveyed.
– The land under permanent pasture has also decreased.
– Fallow land – left without cultivation far one or less than one agricultural year.
– Net sown area total -total area sown in an agricultural year.
– More net sown area in Punjab and Haryana.
– Less net sown area in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar Islands.
– National Forest Policy in India in 1952.
– Waste land includes rocky, Arid and desert area and land put to other non agricultural uses includes settlements, roads, railways, industry etc.
– Continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage it.

Question. Highlights the reason for land being known as an utmost important natural resources.


Land is a resource of utmost importance due to following reasons:
It’s a fixed factor of production and supports all economic activities. It also supports natural vegetation wildlife and various other resources.

Question. Classify resources based on origin.


Resources can be categorized on the   basis of origin: Abiotic resources comprise non-living things (e.g., land, water, air and minerals). Biotic resources are obtained from the biosphere. These have life such as humans, flora and fauna.

Question. Give one difference between renewable and non-renewable resources.


Renewable : Replenished by nature e.g., crops and plants.
Non-renewable : Which get exhausted after years of use. e.g., crude oil.

Question. Give an example of non-renewable resources.



Question. What are resources which are found in a region but have not been utilised called?


Potential resources

Question. What is Agenda 21? List its two principles.


Agenda 21 was adopted at first International earth Summit held in 1992 at Rio de Janerio Brazil The two principles are as follows  :
(a) To combat environment damage, poverty disease through global cooperation on (common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities)
(b)  Every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21.

Question. Classify the resources on the basis of exhaustibility. State two characteristics of each.


Renewable Resources : Resources  that can be replenished after a short period of time are called Renewable Resources. For example – agricultural crops, wind energy, water, forest, wildlife, etc.

Non-renewable Resources :  Resources which takes million years of time to replenish are called non-renewable resources. For example – fossil fuels. We must remember that some resources like metals are recyclable.

Question. Distinguish between the renewable and nonrenewable resources.


Renewable Resources : Resources  that can be replenished after a short period of time are called Renewable Resources. For example – agricultural crops, wind energy, water, forest, wildlife, etc.

Non-renewable Resources :  Resources which takes million years of time to replenish are called non-renewable resources. For example – fossil fuels. We must remember that some resources like metals are recyclable.

Question. Distinguish between stock and potential resource., Give one example of each.


(i)  Stock  :

(a)   They are found in the environment around us. (b)  They are not accessed due to the lack of technology.

(c) Example : Water is a compound of two inflammable gases – hydrogen and oxygen, hydrogen can be used as a rich sources of energy. But we do not have the required technical know- how to use them for this purpose.

(ii)   Potential resources  :

(a)   They are found in a region.

(b)  They have not been utilized or developed.

(c) Example : Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy but they are yet to be developed fully for various reasons.

Question. What are the three stages of resource planning in India?


(i)  Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country.
(ii)  Evolving a planned structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
(iii) Match the resource development plans with overall national development plans.

Question. What are the three stages of resource planning in India? Why is it essential to have resource planning?


(i)  Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country.
(ii)  Evolving a planned structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
(iii) Match the resource development plans with overall national development plans.

Resource planning is a technique or skill for proper utilization of resources.
(a)  As resources are limited, their planning is necessary so that we can use them properly and also save them for our future generation.
(b)  Resources are not only limited but they are distributed over different parts of the country.
(c) Resource planning is also essential for production of resources and to protect them from over exploitation.

Question. Provide a suitable classification for resources on the basis of ownership. Mention main features of any three types of such resources.


Classification based on ownership:

Individual: Resources owned by individuals are called Individual Resources. For example – land owned by farmers, house, etc.

Community : Resources owned by community or society are called Community Owned Resources. For example – Graveyard, grazing land, ponds, burial grounds, park, etc.

National Resources : Resources owned by individual nations are called National Resources. The nation has legal powers, to acquire even private property for public good. All the minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife land in the political boundaries and in oceanic area up to 12 nautical miles from the coast   (called territorial waters)  and the resources in them belongs to the country. For example – Government land, Roads, canals, railway, etc.

International   Resources  :   Resources  regulated by International bodies are called International Resources. For example – Ocean and sea beyond 200 nautical  miles   of the  Exclusive Economic Zone is called open sea or ocean. No individual country can utilize these resources without the permission of International bodies.

Question. ‘Indiscriminate use of resources had led to numerous problems’. Justify this statement.


Resources are vital for human survival and it was believed that resources are free gift of nature. The indiscriminate  use of resources  led to  the following problems.

(i)  To satisfy the greed of few individuals, depletion of resources has continued.

(ii)  Due to the accumulation of resources in few hand, the society gets divided into two segments, i.e., rich and poor.

(iii) Indiscriminate use of resources has led to ecological crises, e.g., ozone layers depletion, land degradation, global warming and environmental pollution.

Question. How is over irrigation responsible for land degradation in Punjab?


Over  irrigation  in  Punjab  causes  the lowering in fertility rate of the soil because of water logging leading to increased salinity and alkalinity of the soil.

Question. How is cement industry responsible for land degradation?


Grinding and crushing of limestone for the cement industry generate a large amount of dust. As the dust settles down on the soil it reduces the process of infiltration of water into the soil.

Question. In which states has mining caused severe land degradation?


Jharkhand,  Chhattisgarh,  Madhya  Pradesh and Odisha.

Question. ‘Land is a natural resource of utmost importance’. Justify the statement with appropriate arguments.


(i)  We live on land, we perform our economic activities on land and we use it in different ways.
(ii)  It   supports   natural   vegetation,   wildlife, human  life, economic  activities, transports  and communication system.
(iii) It is an asset of a finite magnitude.

Question. Define the following terms:
(i) Current fallow land
(ii) Other than current fallow
(iii) Culturable waste land


(i)  Current fallow land : Left uncultivated for one or less than one agricultural year.

(ii)  Other than current fallow : Left uncultivated for past 1 to 5 agricultural years.

(iii) Culturable waste lands : Left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years.

Question. Explain any three factors responsible for soil formation.


(i)  The parent rock is the first factor which provides the basic material for the formation of soil.

(ii) Climate breaks the parent rock into small pieces.

(iii) Vegetation  :   Plant  and  animal  organisms help in the weathering of the rocks slowly but continuously.

(iv) Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running  water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers, etc, contribute to the formation of soil.

(v)  Chemical and organic changes take place in the soil.

Question. Describe any three measures of controlling land degradation.


(i)  Afforestation and proper management of grazing can help in controlling of land degradation.
(ii) Planting  of  shelter  belts,  control  on overgrazing, stabilisation of sand dune by growing thorny bushes, are important ways.
(iii) Proper management of wastelands, control of mixing activities, proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and sub-urban areas. These are some of the methods to check land degradation.

Question. Which is the main cause of land degradation in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh? How can it be checked? Explain.


(i)  Main Cause : Large scale overgrazing has caused severe land degradation.

Measures to check include:
(a) Afforestation and proper management of grazing.
(b)  Planting of shelter belts of plants.
(c)   Stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes.
(d)  Control on overgrazing.

Question. Discuss the factors responsible for land degradation in India.


22. The important factors responsible for land degradation in India are as follows  :

(a)   Deforestation  :   By  an  estimate  over  one million hectares of forest is lost every year in India. (b)  Erosion: Loss of vegetation cover makes land more susceptible to erosion. Wind and water have left vast tracts of land barren. Water erodes top soil to an extent of around 12,000 million tons per annum.

(c)   Over-Irrigation  :  Successive cropping  and over-irrigation, leads to    water-logging and consequent salinization and alkalization. This situation mainly arises due to poor drainage.

(d)  Floods and Droughts: Drought is both man- made and environment-induced. Man has played a key role in the creation of drought-prone areas by over-exploitation of natural resources like forests, degradation  by grazing, excessive withdrawal of ground water, silting of tanks, rivers, etc.

Floods, on the other hand, are caused by heavy rains in a very short period. Each situation could have been altered had there been good vegetation cover. Vegetation helps in reducing run-off, increasing infiltration and reducing soil erosion.

(e)   Over-grazing: India  has  the  worlds largest cattle population, but not enough pasture land. This has led to serious problems as animals have encroached into forest lands and even agricultural lands. Land degradation due to overgrazing leads to desert like conditions. (f )   Pollution  -Pollution  of  land  is  caused  by disposal of solid waste, refuse from domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors. Another major source of land pollution is the creation of derelict land due to mining particularly due to surface and underground mining activities.

Question. Why is soil considered as a resource? Explain with five arguments.


(i)  Soil is considered as a resource because it is used to satisfy our needs. (ii)  It is the most important renewable natural resource
(iii) It is the medium of plant growth.
(iv) It supports different types of living organisms on the earth.

Question. How can you contribute to minimize the pollution? Explain.


We can contribute to minimize pollution by :
(i)   Planting more plants and trees.
(ii)  Using  non-conventional  sources  of  energy such as solar and wind energy.
(iii) Using public transport instead of personal car motor bike etc.
(iv) Saving water and electricity.

Question. Highlight the importance of contour ploughing.


Contour farming, the practice of tilling sloped land along lines of consistent elevation in order to conserve rainwater and to reduce soil losses from surface erosion.

Question. Which soil type is the most widely spread and important soil in India?


Alluvial soil

Question. Which soil types is made up of lava flows?


Black soil

Question. Name the soil type which is widely found in Western Rajasthan. Explain two important characteristics of this soil type which makes it unsuitable for cultivation.


The soil type in western Rajasthan is arid soil, following are its characteristics :

(i)   it consists very high kankar nodules due to increasing calcium content downwards .

(ii)  it is brown – yellow in its colour.

(iii) it is difficult to cultivate anything on this type of soil , but cultivation can be encouraged after proper irrigation as in western Rajasthan.

Question. “In India, some regions are rich in certain types of resources but deficient in some other resource”. Do you agree with the statement? Support your answer with any three examples.


Yes, there are regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other resources.

(i)   Jharkhand,     Chhattisgarh     and     Madhya

Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits.

(ii)  Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development. (iii) Rajasthan is endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources.

(iv) Ladakh has rich cultural heritage but lacks in water resources and infrastructure.

Question. Distinguish between red soil and laterite soil stating any three points of distinction.


Red soils

(i)  Red soil is formed due to weathering of igneous and metamorphic rocks.

(ii)  It is highly porous and less fertile but where it is deep it is fertile.

(iii) It is less crystalline. (iv) It is red in colour due to presence of iron in it. They occur in parts of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Jharkhand

Laterite soil

(i)   It is formed by the leaching process in the heavy rainfall areas of tropical India.

(ii)  It is less fertile, only grass grows on it in abundance.

(iii) It is crystalline. (iv) It is found in hills of the Deccan, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, Assam and Meghalaya.

Question. Mention any three features of arid soils.


(i) Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.

(ii)  They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature.

(iii) Due  to  dry  climate,  high  temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture.

(iv) The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by

Kankar because of the increasing calcium content.

Question. Enumerate any three features of “regur” soil.


(i)  Regur soil is also known as black soil.

(ii)  It is ideal for growing cotton, so it is also known as “Black cotton soil”.

(iii) It is made up of extremely fine clayey material. (iv) It is rich in soil nutrients, calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.

(v)  It develops cracks in hot weather.

(vi) It can hold moisture and is sticky when wet.

Question. Which geographical factors are responsible for the evolution of black soil? Why is it considered the most suitable for growing cotton?


.  (i)  Climatic conditions  along with  present rock material are important factors for making of black soil. The parent rock is volcanic rocks.

(ii)  It is ideal for growing cotton because of the following reasons :

(a)   It has capacity to hold moisture.

(b)  It is rich in soil nutrients such as calcium carbonate and potash.

(c)   Deep cracks in the soil help in aeration.

Question. Distinguish between Khadar and Bangar soils.


Alluvial Soil : It is soil formed by the sediments deposited by river water.

S.N.Khadar soilBangar soil
(i)It is a new alluvial soil.It is an old alluvial soil.
(ii)Lower concentration of kankar nodules.Higher concentration of kankar nodules.
(iii)It has more fine particles.It has less fine particles.
(iv)It is more fertile.It is less fertile.

Question. Explain the two types of soil erosion mostly observed in India. Explain three human activities responsible for soil erosion.


(i)    Two  human  activities which  are responsible   for   the   process   of   soil   erosion are deforestation and overgrazing mining, construction, etc.

(ii)  Types of soil Erosion :
(a)   Gullies : The running water cuts through the clayey soil and makes deep channels/gullies. The unfit land caused by gullies is called bad land or ravines.
(b)  Sheet erosion : Water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. The top soil is washed away. This process is known as sheet erosion.

Question. Describe any five distinct characteristics of ‘Arid soils’.


(i) Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.

(ii)  Sandy in texture and saline in nature.

(iii) Evaporation from this soil is faster, soil lacks humus and moisture.

(iv) Soil occupied by Kankar.

(v)  Kankar restricts the infiltration of water.

Question. What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give four main features of this type of soil.


Alluvial soil is found in the entire northern plain it is the most widely spread soil of India.

Main features of alluvial soil :

(i)   It is formed by the deposition  of materials brought down by the himalayan rivers.

(ii)  It is highly fertile.

(iii) It consists of various proportion  of sand, silt and clay.

(iv) It is rich in potash, phosphoric acid and lime but deficient in organic matter.

Question. Suggest any three methods of soil conservation suitable to Indian conditions.


Methods of soil conservation :

(i)   Ploughing   along   the   contour   lines   can decrease the speed of water flow down the slopes.

(ii)  Step or terrace cultivation on slopes restricts erosion. Western and central Himalayas have well- developed terrace farming areas.

(iii) Strip cropping :  Here large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind.

(iv) Shelter belt  plantation  :  Trees  are  planted in rows. These shelter belts have led to the stabilisation of sand dunes and in stabilising the desert in western India.

Notes For NCERT Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 Resources and Development

Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 Resources and Development
Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 Resources and Development
Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 Resources and Development

Key Concepts to Remember-

• Renewable Resources- Resources which can be reproduces or renewed by physical, chemical or mechanical process. Eg.Solar, wind.

• Non-Renewable Resources-Resources which get exhausted with their use.Eg. Coal, Petroleum.

• Individual resources-Owned by individuals Eg. Own land, House.

• Community Owned Resources- Resources which are accessible to all the members of the community Eg. Parks, Playground.
 National Resources-Resources which belong to the nation. Eg. Roads, Railways.

• International resources-Resources which no individual country can utilize. Eg. Oceanic waters beyond 200 km

• Potential resources-Resources found in a region but not in use. Eg. Solar Energy in Rajasthan, wind in Gujarat.

• Stock- Resources available but do not have appropriate technology to access.Eg Lack of technical know how to use hydrogen and oxygen as source of energy.

• Reserve- Subset of stock. Can be used for future needs.Eg. Water in the dams, forest resources.

• Development of Resources
 It means the extraction and utilization of resources using the available technology, to satisfy human needs.

• Sustainable development
a)Development should take place without damaging the environment.
b)Present development status should continue and grow in future.
c)Development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future

• Land under important relief features in India –
Plains-43%,Mountains-30%, Plateaus-27%

• Land Degradation
Continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage it.

• Soil erosion
The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is soil erosion.

• Reasons for soil erosion include
a) Human activities like deforestation, over grazing, construction, mining, defective method of farming etc
b) Natural forces like wind, glacier and water flow

Types of Erosion

• Gully Erosion-the running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels known as gullies.This makes the land bad land and in the Chambal basin such land is known as ravines.

• Sheet Erosion-When top soil over large area is washed away it is known as sheet erosion.

• Methods to prevent Soil Erosion in Hilly Area
a) Ploughing along the contour lines-contour ploughing
b) Terrace cultivation
c) Strip farming
d) Shelter belts

Short Answer Questions

Question 1. Distinguish between Potential and developed resources.
• Potential resource-resources which have been found in a region but have not been utilized.
• Developed resource-resources which are surveyed and their quantity and quality have been determined for utilization.

Question 2. Distinguish between Bangar and Khadar.
• Bangar- It is the old Alluvial soil. Less Fertile, it has a lot of concentration of kankar nodules
• Khadar- New alluvium, highly fertile.

Question 3. Describe the land use pattern in India
• Pasture land- land under permanent pasture is very low and further decreasing. But we are still managing the cattle population in India by preparing fodder for them
• Net sown area- It is about 54 percent in India. The pattern of Net Sown Area varies from region to region.
• Forest area- It is far lower than the desired 33 percentage of the geographical area. It is considered essential for maintaining the ecological balance.
• Waste land- It includes rocky, arid,desert areas and land put to non agricultural uses.

Question 4. Resource planning is the single solution for sustainable development .Justify.
• An equitable distribution of resources has become essential for a sustained quality of life and global peace.
• If the present trend of resource depletion by a few individuals and countries continues the future of our planet is in danger.
• Resource planning is essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life.
• Utilizing the resources in a judicial manner so as our future generation is not deprived of them.

Question 5. Find out reasons for low percentage of Net Sown Area in Arunachal Pradesh.
Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Reasons for low percentage of Net Sown Area
• Rocky, mountainous, not suitable for agriculture
• Climate is harsh
• Heavy rain hampers the agricultural activities

Long Answer Questions

Question 1.What are the advantages of renewable resources
* The resources which can be used again and again and can be reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable resources
* These resources take a short time for renewal.
* These are free gifts of nature
• Renewable resources are pollution free and therefore environment friendly
• Example are solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy, forests and wildlife etc.

Resources and Development Class 10 Social Science

We hope the above Resources and Development Class 10 Social Science are useful for you. If you have any questions then post them in the comments section below. Our teachers will provide you an answer. Also refer to MCQ Questions for Class 10 Social Science