Please refer to Outcomes of Democracy Class 10 Social Science notes and questions with solutions below. These revision notes and important examination questions have been prepared based on the latest Social Science books for Class 10. You can go through the questions and solutions below which will help you to get better marks in your examinations.
Class 10 Social Science Outcomes of Democracy Notes and Questions
We felt that democracy is better because it :
– Promotes equality among citizens.
– Enhance the dignity of the individual
– Improves the quality of decision making.
– Provides a method to resolve conflicts.
– Allows room to correct mistakes.
– The countries which have formal constitutions, they hold elections and form govts.
– They guarantee rights of citizens.
– Democracy solves the social and political and economic problems of the country.
Accountable responsive and Legitimate Govt.
Accountable Govt. : Democracy is a accountable govt because it is the govt. of the people and made by people and for the people. The representatives elected by the people are responsible to them. If the people are not happy with the govt they can change the leaders in coming elections.
Responsive Govt. : A citizen who wants to know if a decision was taken through the correct procedures can find this out. She has the right and the means to examine the process of decision making. This type of transparency is not available in non democratic govts.
Legitimate Govt. : Democratic govt is legitimate govt. It may be slow, less efficient, not always very responsive or clean. But a democratic govt is people’s own govt’s can not ignore the needs of people. So people wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them.
Question. Explain the meaning of democracy.
It is a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.
Question. Which one of the following is a foundational challenge of democracy?
(a) Empowering women
(b) Keeping military away from controlling government
(c) Ensuring greater power to local governments
(d) Empowering minority groups
(b) Keeping military away from controlling government.
Question. In which area does democracy fail to achieve the same results as in dictatorship?
Question. Which form of government is better democratic or non-democratic?
Democratic government is better.
Question. What is meant by transparency?
To examine the process of decision-making in a democracy is known as transparency.
Question. How does democracy produce an accountable government?
In an accountable government, people have the right to elect the leaders to form government and if possible they participate in decision making process.
Question. Which one of the following is the most popular form of government in the contemporary world?
(b) Monarchy Rule
(c) Military Rule
Question. Which one of the following is an example of outcomes of a democracy that produces an accountable Government?
(a) Open to public debates on major policies and legislation
(b) Open in promoting economic development
(c) Open in reducing economic inequalities
(d) Open to rulers elected by the people
(d) Open to rulers elected by the government
Question. Which one of the following features is common to most of the democracies?
(a) They have formal constitution.
(b) They hold regular election.
(c) They have political parties.
(d) All the above
(d) all of the above
Question. On the basis of which values will it be a fair expectation that democracy should produce a harmonious social life? Explain.
A democratic government must safeguard the fundamental rights of every citizen. This is the basis of a harmonious social life. The values that must be followed are :
(i) The rulers elected by the people must take all the major decisions and be responsible to them.
(ii) Elections must offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the current government.
(iii) This choice and opportunity should be available to all the people equally.
(iv) The government must be limited by basic rules of the constitution and citizen’s rights.
Question. Analyse any three values that make democracy better.
(a) Freedom of expression is granted in a democratic nation. For example, the role of media. It allows people to form groups, and indulge in peaceful protests to vent their grievances.
(b) It ensures transparency in its functioning, such as the recent introduction of the Right to Information Act.
(c) It enhances dignity of the individual. Democracies ensure rights to the individuals which allow them to develop to the fullest potential. Example: Fundamental Rights.
Question. Which values make democracy better than any other form of governments? Explain.
Democracy means rule of people. That is of the people, for the people and by the people. Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate equally—either directly or through elected representatives.
Values it represent are :
(a) Freedom to citizens.
(b) Democracy represents the views and opinions of all the citizens of the country, whether in majority or minority.
(c) Solving conflicts and quarrels by discussion and negotiation.
(d) Dignity to the people of every section of the society.
Question. State any three merits of democracy.
Merits of Democracy are :
(i) Democracy assures equality in every sphere of life like political, social and economic.
(ii) It upholds basic individual liberties like freedom of speech, etc.
(iii) In a democracy transparency in governance is achieved.
Question. How is democratic government known as responsive government? Explain with examples.
A democratic government has to be responsive to the needs of its citizens.
(i) Through discussions and public opinions the democratic government can check the popularity of its decisions and mechanism of administering justice.
(ii) A government which is able to respond to grievances faster is able to avoid confrontation and provide good governance. Such governments are said to be responsive.
Question. Why is democratic government known as legitimate government? Explain.
(i) A democratic government is called legitimate government because it is people’s own government.
(ii) It may be slow, less efficient and may have other flaws but it is people’s government.
(iii) There is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world. People of South Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan and Nepal have no doubt about the suitability of democracy for their country.
(iv) People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them. Democracy’s ability to generate its own support makes it more legitimate.
Question. “Transparency is the most important feature of democracy.” Analyse.
Transparency is the most important feature of democracy :
(i) Democracy ensures that decision-making will be based on certain norms and procedures.
(ii) So, a citizen who wants to know if a decision was taken through correct procedures can find this out by filing R.T.I.
(iii) The citizens have the right and the means to examine the process of decision-making. This is known as transparency.
Question. Explain any three merits of democratic governments over the dictatorship.
Advantages of Democracy :
(i) Chief merit of democracy lies in the fact that it safeguards the interests of the people. Real power lies in the hands of the people who exercise it by the representatives elected by them and who are responsible to them. The social, economic and political interests of the individuals are served better under this system.
(ii) Democracy is based on the principle of equality. All members of the state are equal in the eyes of law. All enjoy equal social, political and economic rights and state cannot discriminate among citizens on the basis of caste, religion, sex, or property. All have equal right to choose their government.
(iii) Democracy is known for its stability, firmness and efficiency. The tenure of the elected representatives is fixed. They form a stable government because it is based on public support. The administration is conducted with a sense of responsibility.
Demerits of Dictatorship :
(a) In dictatorship a very select few rule over the country and they are nor answerable to the public. There is no chance of correcting a wrong policy or a decision.
(b) Since people have no say in the government functioning there is large scale dissatisfaction. The rulers generally use suppressive and coercive measures to keep the population from revolting.
Question. Explain any three weaknesses of democracy.
(i) Democracies take more time in decision- making.
(ii) Democracies fall short in elections that provide a fair chance to everyone and do not subject every decision to public debate.
(iii) The tales of corruption are enough to convince that democracies are not free of evil at all.
Question. Describe the importance of democratic government as an accountable and legitimate government.
Democratic government can be said to be accountable and legitimate government. The following reasons can be ascribed to it:
Accountable government :
(i) When people choose their representatives, they are expected to be accountable, this is the basic outcome of democracy.
(ii) The citizens have the right and also the means to examine the process of decision making, that is high level of accountability is expected.
(iii) The government is expected to practice regular, free and fair elections and open discussions on important issues.
(iv) Democratic government can apparently be less efficient than a non-democratic government. This happens because a non-democratic government does not need to arrive at consensus among a diverse set of people. Democracy functions on the basis of deliberation and negotiation and hence decisions are often delayed. But this does not mean that a democratic government is less efficient.
Legitimate government :
(i) A democratic government is people’s own government. That is why there is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world and there is the element of legitimacy attached to it.
(ii) People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them. They also believe that democracy is suitable for their country. Democracy’s ability to generate support for itself is an outcome that cannot be ignored.
(iii) Though there are many reports of democracies ignoring the demands of people and there are routine tales of corruption but yet chances of governments improving only exists in democratic setup.
Question. “Democracy stands much superior of any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of individual.” Justify this statement.
Dignity and Freedom of the Citizens : Democracy has emerged as the most popular form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual. It does so –
(a) By extending legal and political equality to every citizen including women, to the weaker sections of society and to the marginalized.
(b) By guaranteeing fundamental rights to all.
(c) Giving adequate representation to the minorities and protection through various safeguards.
(d) This gives political voice to the marginalized and increases their democratic consciousness.
(e) It enables women, lower casts and other disadvantaged groups to wage their struggle for justice, fairness with a legal backing.
Question. Describe any five characteristics of democracy.
The characteristics of democracy are:
1. Elected representatives rule the country.
2. Elections that are free and fair are held at regular periodicity.
3. Rights of the individual citizen are protected and rule of law prevails that is equal for every one.
4. Independent judiciary functions with out the intervention of the rulers.
5. Opposition parties question the actions of the rulers and thus ensure good governance.
6. Freedom of religion and culture is ensured.
Question. What is meant by economic inequality?
It refers to disparities in the distribution of economic assets and income.
Question. “Democracies are not appearing to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities.” Analyse the statement.
Democracy and the economic outcomes :
(i) Slow economic development and economic growth can be due to large population.
(ii) Basic needs of life, such as food, clothing, shelter are difficult to achieve in certain democracies.
(iii) Prevalence of economic inequalities are often seen.
(iv) Poverty is still a big issue.
(v) Allocation of resources in few hands.
(vi) Unjust distribution of goods and opportunities. However despite mediocre economic outcomes democracy is preferred for the dignity it provides to every citizen.
Question. Evidence shows that in practice, many democracies did not fulfill the expectations of producing economic development in the country. Validate the statement with the help of relevant example.
(i) If we consider all democracies and all dictatorships for the fifty years between 1950 and 2000, dictatorship has slightly higher rate of economic growth.
(ii) Economic development depends on several factors : country’s population size, global situation, cooperation from other countries, etc.
(iii) However, the difference in the rates of economic development between less developed countries with dictatorships and democracies is negligible.
(iv) Overall, it cannot be said that democracy is a guarantee of economic development. But we can expect democracy not to lag behind dictatorships in this respect.
(v) With small difference in the rates of economic growth between countries under dictatorship and democracy, it is better to prefer democracy as it has several other positive outcomes. Such as- the decisions are taken after a consensus is formed. The economic development is more likely to be broad based and benefit larger section of the society. In a democracy the people are citizens and not subjects.
Question. How are the democratic governments better than the other forms of government? Compare.
The democratic governments are better than other forms of governments:
(i) They hold regular elections, while it is not the case in other form of governments.
(ii) They guarantee rights to citizens, while it is not the case in the other form of governments.
(iii) Such government accommodates social diversities, while this does not happen in other forms of government.
Question. Establish the relationship between democracy and development.
In general there is a healthy relationship between democracy and development. However,
(a) Experience from poor countries show that economic growth under dictatorship regime has been slightly faster. However such societies lack positive social aspects of personal dignity and freedom.
(b) It can be said that in democracies, opportunities for economic growth are available to a large section of the population. This indicates that the chances of economic inequality is reduced.
(c) A democratic government is more likely to spend resources on public projects such as education, health, public transport, etc. which has a positive effect on the population. Thus holistically democracy scores much more than dictatorship.
(d) Democracy provides better conflict resolution by discussion and negotiation; rather than through violent means which destroys public resources, property and morale of the people.
Question. How can a democratic government be made accountable? Explain.
A democratic government can be made accountable by :
(i) Conducting discussions and negotiations.
(ii) Ensuring transparency.
(iii) Holding regular, free and fair elections.
(iv) Having an independent media.
Question. What are the expected outcomes of democracy? Explain.
The expected outcomes of democracy are as follows :
(i) The government is accountable to the people.
(ii) The government is responsive to the needs of the people.
(iii) Economic growth and development reducing all forms of inequality and end of poverty is expected.
(iv) Accommodating all social diversities happen.
(v) It ensures dignity and freedom of the individuals.
Question. “Some people think that democracy produces a less effective government.” Analyse the statement.
It is true that some people think that democracy produces a less effective government because :
(i) Non-democratic rulers do not have to bother about deliberation in assemblies or worry about public opinion.
(ii) They can be very quick and efficient in decision making and implementation.
(iii) But democracy is based on the ideal of deliberation and negotiation. So some delay is bound to take place.
(iv) Some democracies fall short in providing a fair chance to everyone in selecting their leaders.
(v) Democratic governments do not have a very good record when it comes to sharing information with citizens.
(vi) Democracies often frustrate the needs of the people and often ignore the demands of a section of its population.
Question. “The cost of time that democracy pays is perhaps worth it.” Justify.
(i) Imagine a government that may take decisions very fast. But it may take decisions that are not accepted by the people and may, therefore, face problems.
(ii) In contrast, the democratic governments take more time to follow procedure before arriving at a decision.
(iii) However, because it has followed procedure, its decisions may be more acceptable to the people and more effective. So, the cost of time that democracy pays is worth it.
Question. How democracies have been able to reduce poverty? Elaborate.
(i) Democracies are not very successful in reducing economic inequalities. Even when majority of voters constitute the poor, yet democratically elected government do not appear to be as keen to address the issue of poverty as one would expect them to.
(ii) Situation is much worse in some of the countries where people depend upon rich countries for food supplies.
(iii) But even then democracy is favoured because it provides the opportunity to change the rulers and the people have dignity.
Question. Describe the favorable condition generally provided to people under a democratic rule.
Favorable conditions generally provided to people under a democratic rule are :
(i) It promotes dignity to citizens irrespective of caste, creed and religion.
(ii) It ensures freedom of the individual to express himself or herself.
(iii) It provides reservation for women and other advantages for discriminated groups so that they come up fast.
Question. Explain the ways in which democracy can be redefined to make democracy more effective.
Ways in which democracy can be redefined to make democracy more effective are:
(i) Ensure that views of minority are respected.
(ii) Eliminate caste, religion and gender based
(iii) People must enjoy extensive rights from right to vote to participate in elections.
(iv) People must enjoy social and economic rights.
Question. How do democratic government ensure transparency? Explain any three points.
The ways by which democratic government ensures transparency are :
(i) In democracies the decision-making process is based on proper norms and procedures.
(ii) Citizens have the right to examine the process of decision making.
(iii) A democratic government develops mechanisms for the citizens to hold the government accountable and to take part in decision making.
Question. Explain the role of democratic government in reducing economic disparities.
The government plays an important role in reducing economic disparities by adopting the following measures:
(i) Government ensures equal distribution of wealth, so that there is no large gap between the rich and the poor.
(ii) Government undertakes extensive social welfare schemes and strives to achieve universal literacy rate.
(iii) Government takes care to provide equal opportunities to all. The income should be eventually distributed among the people.
Question. “Democracy is more effective than its other alternatives.” Justify the statement.
Democracy is more effective than its other alternatives :
(i) Democracy promotes equality among citizens, and the economic benefits are broad based.
(ii) It enhances the dignity of the individual.
(iii) It also improves the quality of decision- making.
(iv) It provides a method to resolve conflicts.
(v) It gives room to correct mistakes.
(vi) Democratic government is a legitimate government.
(vii) Democracy’s ability to generate its own support is itself an outcome that cannot be ignored.
Question. Explain the meaning of ‘sectional interest group’.
Sectional interest groups seek to represent the common interests of a particular section of society. As a result, members of sectional pressure groups are directly and personally concerned with the outcome of the campaign fought by the group because they usually stand to gain from it.
Question. Name any two sectional interest groups.
Labors’ Union, Farmer Associations are two sectional interest groups.
Question. Which system can reduce the possibility of tension and conflict among different groups of society ?
Democracies have an advantage in resolving social differences, diversion and conflicts because they have evolved a mechanism to negotiate the differences.
Question. Why is a democratic government better than other alternatives?
(i) It promotes equality among citizens.
(ii) It enhances the dignity of the individual.
Question. Examine the political outcome of democracy.
(i) Democracy provides right to the citizens to choose their leaders and keep a check on them.
(ii) If required people can participate in decision making either directly or through representatives.
(iii) It produces accountable, responsible and legitimate government.
Question. “Democracy accommodates social diversities”. Support the statement with examples.
“Democracy accommodates social diversities” :
(i) Democracies develop a procedure to deal with conflicts. This reduces the possibility of the tensions becoming explosive or violent.
(ii) No society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts among different groups. But we can certainly learn to respect these differences and can evolve a mechanism to negotiate these differences.
(iii) Ability to handle social differences, divisions and conflict is thus a definite advantage of democratic regimes.
(iv) Example : Belgium has successfully negotiated differences among its ethnic population.
Question. When is democracy considered successful? Explain.
Democracy is considered to be successful if :
(i) The government elected by the people must take all major decisions and not be influenced by the rich and powerful.
(ii) The election must offer a free choice and opportunity to the people to select its leaders.
(iii) The choice should be available to all the people based on political equality and without any coercion.
Question. “There is overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world.” Support the statement.
- There is overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world because :
(i) A democratic government is people’s own government.
(ii) The evidence from South Asia shows that support for democracies exists in most countries.
(iii) People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them.
(iv) Most people believe that democracy is suitable for their country.
(v) Democracy has the ability to generate its own support which in itself is an outcome that cannot be ignored.
Question. What are the two conditions to accommodate social diversities in a democracy? Mention any one exception to this.
(i) It is necessary to understand that democracy is not simply rule by majority. The majority always needs to work with the minority so that governments function to represent the general view.
(ii) It is also necessary that rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic group.
The exception is in the government of Sri Lanka where majoritarianism is followed leading to many problems.
Question. How is democracy accountable and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens? Analyse.
- Democracy is accountable and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens because :
(i) In a democracy, people have the right to choose their representatives and the people have control over them.
(ii) Citizens have the right to participate in decision making that affects them. This ensures that the working of the government is transparent.
(iii) Everybody expects the government to be attentive to the needs and expectations of itself.
(iv) It is expected that the democratic government develops mechanisms for citizens to hold itself accountable.
(v) The opposition parties can also question and criticize the government policies. They keep a check on the ruling party and make sure that it does not misuse the power.
Question. Are democracies based on political and economic equalities? Explain.
- Democracy are based on political equality :
(i) All citizens have equal role in electing representatives.
(ii) Parallel to the process of bringing individuals into the political arena, we find growing economic inequalities.
(iii) Democracy does not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities.
(iv) The ultra-rich enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and opportunities.
(v) It is often difficult to meet the basic needs of life, such as food, clothing, house, education for the poor thus, democracies cannot be said to be based on economic equality.
Question. Discuss any three factors that describe the successful working of democracy in India.
Factor for the success of democracy is India:
(i) Transparency of functioning with implementation of RTI Act.
(ii) It provides legitimacy as regular elections are held in India.
(iii) Government accommodates social diversity.
(iv) It provides dignity and freedom to the citizens with many fundamental rights.
Question. “Democracies lead to peaceful and harmoniums life among citizens.” Justify this statement.
Democracies lead to peaceful and harmonious life among citizens:
Democracy provides the opportunity to negotiate the differences and decide on what is better for everyone. Non-democratic regimes usually just ignore the internal problems or suppress it. Democracy ensures inclusion of every group including minorities and its interests in the decision making.
Democracy is considered better because :
(a) It promotes equality among citizens.
(b) It recognizes and enhances the dignity of the individual.
(c) It improves the quality of decision making.
(d) It provides a method to resolve conflicts.
(e) It allows room to correct mistakes.
Question. “Democracy is very important for promoting dignity and freedom of the citizens.” Support the statement with arguments.
The above statement is proved with the help of following arguments :
(a) Democracy provides fundamental rights to all its citizens.
(b) Democratic govt. is answerable to the people.
(c) It provides people the right to change the govt after a fixed period if its function is not up to the expectation.
(d) It provides the right for peaceful demonstration.
(e) It reduces the possibility of conflict and thus maintains social harmony.
Question. Describe the role of citizens in a democracy.
The role of citizens in a democracy are as follows :
(i) Citizens must exercise their rights and freedom to get benefited from democratic set-up.
(ii) They must be aware of their rights and duties.
(iii) They should be aware of the local issues and greater problems the country is facing.
(iv) They must cooperate in maintaining law and order.
(v) People must be sensitive to the needs and interest of others.
Question. “A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the success of democratic project.” Justify the statement.
“A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the success of democracy.
(i) It shows that people have developed awareness and the courage to ask questions.
(ii) When people look critically at the government, democracy becomes better.
(iii) When people complain, government begins to perform better.
(iv) They value their democratic rights and make use of it.
Question. “Democracy stands much superior in promoting dignity and freedom of the citizens”. Justify the statement.
“Democracy stands much superior in promoting dignity and freedom to the citizens”:
(i) Every individual wants to receive respect from fellow beings. Democracy provides fundamental rights to every citizen.
(ii) Freedom from coercion is basis of any democracy, where everyone can have faith of choice.
(iii) In a democracy people have equal opportunities so they can come up in life. They are not discriminated on the basis of caste or gender.
(iv) Long struggles by women have got them respect and equal treatment. In many democracies, women were deprived of their right to vote for a long time which they have achieved now. In India 1/3rd of seats have been reserved for women in local bodies.
(v) Democracy has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity.
Question. “Democracy is seen to be good in principle ut felt to be not so good in practice.” Justify the statement.
Democracy is seen to be good in principles but not so good in practice because of the following reasons :
(i) The decision making process in democracy is time-taking.
(ii) The tyranny of the majority sometimes over rides the minority.
(iii) Corruption and red-tapism often tarnishes the functioning of democracies.
(iv) An illiterate and uniformed electorate fails to give itself a legitimate and accountable government.
(v) The role of dynastic politics dominates political cultures which goes against the very concept of democracy
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