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Class 10 Social Science The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Notes and Questions
Points to Remember:
From the very begining of the French Revolution, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity (nationalism) amongst the French people. Later, Napoleon introduced revolutionary reforms in the administrative field which is known as Civil Code of 1804 (The Napoleonic Code). Further, the ideas of national unity (Nationalism) in the early nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism.
Conservatism in Europe after 1815
Napoleon was defeated in 1815 and after this European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. As a political philosophy, conservatism stressed on the importance of tradition established institutions and custom, and preferred gradual development to quick change. In the background, a summit (called the Congress) was organized at Vienna. The congress was hosted by the Austrian chancellor, Duke Matternich. The Treaty of Vienna was signed in this congress.
He was the Austrian Chancellor. He was born on 15th May 1773. He had once remarked that “When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches cold”. He took a prominent part in Congress of Vienna and dominated the European politics from 1814 to 1848. He acted as the restorer of the ‘old Regime’ and the reconstruction of Europe after the Napoleonic wars.
He was born in Genoa in 1807. He became a member of secret society of the Carbonari. As a young man of 24, he was sent to exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He subsequently founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles and then, Young Europe in Berne. Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives. Matternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.
Count Camillo of Cavour
He was the Chief Minister of Sardia-Piedmont. He led the movement to unify the regions of Italy though he was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. The tactful diplomatic alliance with France was also engineered by Cavour and thus Austria could be defeated and the Unification of Italys was made possible.
He was not part of the regular Troops. He led armed volunteers for the unification of Italy. In 1860, he along with armed volunteers marched into South Italy and the kingdom of two Sicilies and succeded in winning the Support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers. He handed over control of Southern Italy and Sicily to king Emmanuel II and thus Unification of Italy could be made possible.
Greek War of Independence
Greek was the part of the Ottoman Empire since 15th century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism (after French Revolution, 1789) sparked off a struggle for Independence among Greeks. The struggle for independence stated in 1821. Nationalists in Greece got support from the other Greeks living in exile and also from many west Europeans. Many poets and artists mobilized public opinion to support Greece struggle. The English poet Lord Byron organized funds and later went to fight in the war, where he died of fever in 1824. The Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognized Greece as on independent nation.
Nationalism and Imperialism (Balkan Problem)
The balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia etc. whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive. One by one, European Subject nationalities broke away and declared their Independence. As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict. The Balkan states hope to gain more territory at the expenses of the others. During this period, there was intense rivalry among the European powers for control over this area. This further complicated the matter. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.
Visualizing the Nation
Artists in the 18th and 19th centuries portrayed a country as if it were a person (Nations were portrayed as a Female Figure). The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life; rather it sought to give the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form. Thus, female figure became an allegory of the nation. In France, she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which under lined the idea of the people’s nation. Similarly, Germania became the allegory of the German nation.
In the German regions a large number of political associations whose members were middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly. On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul. They drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament. When the deputies offered the crown on these terms to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. While the opposition of the aristocracy and military became stronger, the social basis of parliament eroded. The parliament was dominated by the middle classes who resisted the demands of workers and artisans and consequently lost their support. In the end troops were called in and the assembly was forced to disband.
Postage stamp of 1850 Picture of Marianne was printed on it which represented the Republic of France.
This picture was made by painter Philip Vetit in 1848. This was meant to hang from the ceiling of the Church of St. Paul where the Frankfurt Parliament was convened.
Various symbols which were used to depict the development of Nationalism.
“When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches cold.”
“Mazzini is the most dangerous enemy of our social order.”
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