Business Trade and Commerce Class 11 Business Studies Notes And Questions

Notes Class 11

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Class 11 Business Studies Business Trade and Commerce Notes and Questions


All human beings require different types of goods and services to satisfy their needs. The necessity of supplying goods and services has led to certain activities being undertaken by
people to produce and sell what is needed by others. Business is a major economic activity in all modern societies as it is concerned with the production and sale of goods and services to the needy people.


History of Trade and Commerce
Trade and commerce have played a vital role in making India to evolve as a major actor in the economic word in ancient times. Commercial cities like Harappa and Mohenjodaro were some examples for the business development of ancient India. These civilizations had established commercial connections with Mesopotamia and traded in gold, silver, copper, gemstones, beads, pearls, sea shells etc. There were different types of coins and weighing practices during that time.

Indigenous Banking System
As economic life progress, metallic money had been introduced which in turn accelerated the economic activities. Documents such as Hundi and Chitti were in use for carrying out
transactions in which money passed from hand to hand.
Hundi as an instrument of exchange, it involved a contract which warrant the payment of money, the promise or order which is unconditional and capable of change through transfer by valid negotiation.
Indigenous banking system played a prominent role in lending money and financing domestic and foreign trade with currency and letter of credit. With the development of banking, people began to deposit precious metals with lending individuals functioning as Bankers or Seths.

Business Trade and Commerce Class 11 Business Studies Notes And Questions

Rise of Intermediaries
Intermediaries played an important role n the promotion of trade. They helped the producers especially in foreign trade. They consist of commission agents, brokers and distributors for wholesale and retail of goods.

Transport by land and water was popular in the ancient times. Roads as a means of transportation had assumed key importance in the process of growth especially in inland trade.
The northern trade route from Bengal to Taxila was an example for the same.
Maritime trade was another important branch of global trade network. Muziris (ancient harbor) in Malabar Coast (near to the present-day Cochin) has a long history of international maritime trade.
Calicut was also an important market for Chinese to acquire items like frankincense, pepper (black gold), pearls, cotton etc.
Pulicat on Coromandel Coast (Tamil Nadu) was a major port in the 17th century. Textiles were the principal export item from Pulicat to Southeast Asia.

Trading Communities
Different trading communities strengthened in ancient India and they dominated trade in different parts of the country. Some of them are as follows:
Punjabi and Multani – Merchants in northern region
Bhats – Gujarat and Rajastan
Mahajan – Western India
Chatt – South India

Merchant Corporations
They were autonomous corporations (guilds) formed to protect the interests of the traders.
These corporations were organised on formal basis, framed their own rules and code of conduct, which even kings were supposed to accept and respect. The guild chief directly dealt
with the king or tax collectors and settled the market toll (tax) on behalf of its fellow merchants at a fixed sum of money.

Major Trade Centres
1. Pataliputra – Patna in Bihar today. Commercial town and major centre for export of stones.
2. Peshawar – City in Pakistan. Very popular for export of wool and for the import of horses.
Major transactions between India, China and Rome in the first century.
3. Taxila – City in Pakistan, also called Thakshashila. Popularly known as the city of financial and commercial banks.
4. Indraprastha – Located in the region of present-day New Delhi. It was a commercial junction where most routes leading the east, west, south and north converged (joined).
5. Mathura – City in UP. It was an emporium of trade and people here subsisted (lived) on commerce. Many routes from South India touched Mathura and Broach (Bharuch in Gujarat).
6. Varanasi – City in UP. Well known centre for textile industries and became famous for gold silk cloth and sandalwood workmanship. It had links with Taxila and Bharuch.
7. Mithila – City in Bihar. The traders in this city crossed the seas by boats, through Bay of Bangal to the South China. They established trading colonies in South China.
8. Ujjain – City in MP. Different verities of clothes were exported to different centres. It had trade connections with Taxila and Peshawar.
9. Surat – City in Gujarat. It was an emporium of western trade during Mughal period.
They were also famous for gold boarder sarees.
10.Kanchi – Present day Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu. Chinese came here to purchase pearls, glass and rare stones and in return they sold gold and silk.
11. Madura – City in Tamil Nadu. It was the capital city of Pandya dynasty who controlled the trade of pearl and fisheries of the Gulf of Mannar (shallow in between India and Sri Lanka).
12.Broach – Present day Bharuch in Gujarat. It was a major trade centre in Western India.
13.Kaveripatta – Present day Kaveripattanam in Tamil Nadu. It was scientific in its construction as a city and provided loading, unloading and strong facilities of merchandise. It was also famous for perfumes, cosmetics, scents, silk, wool, cotton and also for ship building.
14.Tamralipti – City in West Bengal (Kolkata). It was one of the greatest ports connected both by sea and land. It was linked by road to Banaras (UP) and Taxila.

Major Exports and Imports
Spices, wheat, sugar, indigo, opium, sesame oil, cotton, parrot, live animals and animal products were the major export items, whereas import items include horses, animal products, Chinese silks, linen, wine, gold, silver, copper, etc.

Position of Indian Subcontinent in World Economy (1AD to 1991)
From 1st to 7th centuries, India was estimated to have the largest economy in the world. The country was often referred as ‘Swarnabhumi’ and ‘Swarnadweep’ by many writers and travelers like Megasthenes, Faxian (Fa Hien), Xuanzang (Huen Tsang) etc. because of its prosperity.
During 18th century, the British empire began to take roots in India, thereby the Indian economic condition was slowly changed from being an exporter of processed goods to the exporter of raw materials and buyer of manufactured goods.

India begins to Reindustrialise
After independence, the process of rebuilding the Indian economy have been started. As a part of this the first five year plan was implemented in 1952. Due importance was given to the establishment of modern industries, modern technological and scientific institutes, space and nuclear programs.

To overcome the problems of lack of capital, rise in population, huge expenditure on defence, inadequate infrastructure etc. India relied heavily on borrowings from foreign sources and finally,agreed to economic liberalization in 1991.
The Indian economy is one of the fastest growing economies in the world today. The high growth sectors have been identified, which are likely to grow at a rapid pace and the recent initiatives of the Government of India such as ‘Make in India’, ‘Skill India’, ‘Digital India’, Foreign Trade Policy 2015-20 etc. is expected to help the economy in terms of exports and imports and trade balance.


Nature and Concept of Business
Concept of Business
The term business is derived from the work ‘busy’. Therefore, business means being busy. In specific sense, business refers to an occupation in which people regularly engage in activities related to purchase, production and / or sale of goods and services with a view to earn profits.
Business is defined as the “repeated buying and selling or manufacturing of goods and services with an intention to earn profit which involves the creation of wealth.” Example; A factory, A retail shop, Commission agents, brokers etc.
In every society, people undertake various activities to satisfy their needs. These activities can be classified into two, they are Economic Activities and Non-Economic Activities.

1. Economic Activities – These are those activities which are undertaken to earn money or money’s worth and related to production and exchange of wealth. Eg; Running a factory,Retail shop, Cultivating land etc. Economic activities may be further divided into three categories, namely business, profession and employment.

Characteristics of Economic Activities.
a. Economic Activities are related to production of wealth.
b. These are undertaken to satisfy human wants.
c. They are performed with an expectation of earning money.
d. It acts as a basis for economic development of the society.

2. Non-economic Activities – Non-economic activities are those activities which are undertaken not for any reward but for the personal satisfaction. Example; A mother looks after her children, A house-wife cooks food for the family, Visiting Temples etc.

Differences between Economic activities and Non-economic activities

Business Trade and Commerce Class 11 Business Studies Notes And Questions

Characteristics of Business:

1. Economic Activity – because it is undertaken with the object or earning money or livelihood.

2. Production or procurement of goods and service – In order to offer the goods for consumption they must be either produced or procured by the business enterprise. Goods may consist of consumable goods, industrial goods or capital goods. Services include facilities offered to consumers in such as transportation, banking, insurance, electricity etc.
(Consumable goods – Pen, soap, sugar etc., Industrial goods – Steel, cement etc., Capital goods – Machinery, furniture etc.)

3. Sale or exchange of goods and services – There should be sale or exchange of goods or services between the seller and buyer. If goods are produced for personal use, it cannot be treated as a business. Eg: Cooking food for the family is not a business, but cooking food and selling it to others in a restaurant is a business.

4. Regular Dealings – Business involves dealing in goods and services on a regular basis.
One single transaction of sale or purchase is not considered as a business. For example, if a person is selling is old car is not considered as a business.

5. Earning Profit – It is the main purpose of business. So that the businessmen should take
all efforts to increase the profit by increasing sales volume or reducing cost of production.

6. Uncertainty of Return – No business can predicts its future profit as it is uncertain. Also there is a possibility of loss being incurred.

7. Element of Risk – Every business is subject to risk due to various reasons like change in fashion, technological changes, increasing competition, fire, theft, accidents, naturalm calamities etc.

Comparison of Business, Profession and Employment

Business Trade and Commerce Class 11 Business Studies Notes And Questions

Classification of Business
Business activities may be broadly classified into two broad categories – Industry and

Business Trade and Commerce Class 11 Business Studies Notes And Questions

The term industry refers to that part of business which is concerned with the production of goods and material. An industry may be classified into primary industry, secondary industry and tertiary industry.

1. Primary industries are concerned with the extracting, producing and processing of natural resources. It may further be divided into extractive industries and genetic industries.
i. Extractive Industries are engaged in the extraction (collection) of useful materials from the earth and sea. Mining, fishing, agriculture, quarrying etc. are the examples for extractive industries. The products of these industries are either directly consumed or used as raw materials by other industries.
b. Genetic Industries are engaged in the reproduction or multiplication of plants and animals.
E.g. Plant nurseries, Poultry farms, cattle breeding farms etc.

2. Secondary Industries are concerned with the materials which have already been produced at the primary stage, and they are again classified into Manufacturing industries and Construction industries.
a. Manufacturing Industries are engaged with the conversion of raw materials into finished goods. E.g. cotton into textiles, timber into furniture etc. they change the form of goods
i.e. raw material into finished goods and thus create form utility. Manufacturing industries usually produce consumer goods such as soap, cloth, tooth paste etc., industrial goods such as steel, cement etc. and Capital goods such as machinery and tools.

Types of Manufacturing Industries:
i. Analytical industry – Separates different elements from the same material. Eg: oil refinery.
ii. Synthetical industry – Combines various ingredients into a new product. Eg: Cement.
iii. Processing industry – Go through successive stages for manufacturing a finished product.Eg: sugar, paper etc.
iv. Assembling industry – Assembles different component parts to make a new product. Eg:
TV, Car, Mobile Phone, Computer etc.

b. Construction Industries are engaged in the construction of buildings, dams, roads, bridges etc. and they use the products of manufacturing industries and extractive industries.

3. Tertiary Industries are providing support services to primary and secondary industries and it form part of commerce. All service activities which are auxiliaries to trade like transport,
banking, insurance, warehousing, communication, packaging, advertising etc. fall under this category.

Commerce is concerned with the buying, selling and distribution of commodities and it is an organized system for the exchange of goods and services in between the businessman and the customers. It is also concerned with the marketing aspects of business, i.e. supply of right type of goods to the right persons, at the right time and at the right price. Thus commerce includes trade and aids to trade.

Definition – Commerce can be defined as the sum total of all those activities which are involved in the removal of hindrances in the process of exchange of goods.

Functions of Commerce –
1. Removal of Hindrance of Person: It refers to the lack of contact between the producers and customers. Here the trader acts as an intermediary among them and customers are able to find out the products which they are wanted from the market.
2. Removal of Hindrance of Place: It is a common problem that the producers and customers are in distant places, hence the commodities should be transferred from the production centre to the hands of customers. This problem can be solved by the system of commerce by means of transport, packing and insurance.
3. Removal of Hindrance of Risk: Goods and properties of business are subject to various risk such as fire, theft, damage etc., and they have to be protected by insuring the goods and properties.
4. Removal of Hindrance of Time: There may be a gap between the production and consumption as the production is carried out in anticipation of future demands.
Therefore, it becomes necessary to store the goods until they are sold. This problem can be solved by warehousing.
5. Removal of Hindrance of Knowledge: Advertising helps in the removal of hindrance of knowledge among the buyers.
6. Removal of Hindrance of Finance: The problem of finance can be handled by banks, which form part of commerce. It will also help the businessman in exchange of money
between different persons at different places.

Make in India
It is an initiative launched by the Government of India on 25th September 2014, to encourage national and multinational companies to manufacture their products in India. Its major objectives are job creation and skill enhancement in 25 sectors of the economy. Some of them are, Automobile, Aviation, Biotechnology, Chemicals, Construction, Defense, Electrical Machinery, Food processing, I T, Oil and Gas, Media and Entertainments, Mining, Railways etc.

Trade means buying and selling of goods, which involves the exchange of commodities for money or money’s worth.

Types of Trade:

1. Home Trade – It is also known as domestic trade or internal trade. It means that the buying and selling of goods within the country and both the buyer and seller should belong the same nation. Home trade is of two types:
a. Wholesale Trade – It implies that the buying and selling in large quantities. A wholesaler buys goods directly from the producers and sells them to the retailers.
b. Retail Trade – It involves buying and selling of goods in small quantities. A retail trader buys goods from the wholesalers and sells them to the customers.

2. Foreign Trade – It is also known as External trade or international trade. It involves the buying and selling of goods and services in between the persons belonging to two or more countries. Foreign trade is of the following types:
a. Export Trade – It implies the sale of goods to foreign countries.
b. Import Trade – It refers to the purchase of goods from foreign countries.
c. Entrepot Trade – It means importing goods from one country for the purpose of exporting them to some other countries.

Aids to Trade (Auxiliaries to Trade)
The activities which assist trade are called aids to trade or Auxiliaries to Trade. It includes Transport, Banking, Insurance, Warehousing, Advertising etc. These service enterprises facilitate movements, storage, finance, risk coverage and sales promotion of goods.

1. Transport and Communication – Usually production takes place in certain locations and consumption all over the country, for instance tea is produced in Kerala and Assam, Jute in West Bengal, here there is an obstacle or barrier of place. This is removed by transport through various modes such as road, rail or water transport.
Along with transport there arises the need for communication. This will help producers, traders and consumers in exchange of information. Postal service, telephones and other modern means of communication may be regarded as auxiliaries to business activities.

2. Banking and Finance – All business concerns need fund for acquiring assets, raw materials and meeting day today expenses. Finance is the foundation of all business provided by banks. The banks accepts deposits from the public and provide credit facilities for business. They generally lend money by providing overdraft and cash credit facilities, loans and advances and discounting of bills. Besides, they undertake collection of cheques, remittance facilities and various other services to the business community.

3. Insurance – In business, there are a lot of chances of risks such as damage to property and human resource (employees), such as fire, earthquake, theft, damage of goods in stock and transit. Insurance has been emerged for the fulfillment of this need. On payment of a nominal amount called premium, the amount of loss or damage is compensated by the insurance company.

4. Warehousing – Production is always in anticipation of future demands, so that the products are to be kept in good condition until they are sold. Storage of goods is done by warehouses specially constructed for this purpose. They facilitate the availability of goods when required. Thus warehousing stabilizes prices by equalizing supplies.

5. Advertising – It is an important device for promoting sales. It is not an easy task to reach millions of customers; therefore, promoting sales, information about the product must be made available to the potential buyers though advertising. Thus advertising makes possible marketing of goods and services on a large scale.

Objectives of Business (Multiple Objectives of Business)

A business enterprise must have multiple objectives to satisfy different individuals and groups for its own survival and prosperity.
a. Market Standing – It refers to the position of an enterprise in relation to its competitions by providing quality products and better service to its customers.
b. Innovations (Novelty) – Innovation means the introduction of something new to the market.
It may be a new design, new quality for the existing product, new method of production etc.
c. Productivity – Every enterprise should aim at greater efficiency and productivity by the best use of available resources.
d. Physical and financial resources – The business enterprise must aim at acquiring physical resources like buildings, plant and machinery, offices etc. and financial resources or fund for its operations and ensure its efficient use.
e. Earning profits – It is the most important aim of every business. Profit is regarded as the lifeblood of a business to survive and to make growth and development of the enterprise.
f. Manager performance and development – The enterprise should take much initiative to improve the efficiency of its managers by conducting various programs to motivate them.
g. Worker performance and attitude – Every enterprise should aim at improving its workers performance and their positive attitude.
h. Social responsibility – It refers to the social obligations of business firms to contribute resources for solving social problems and to work in a socially desirable manner.

In simple words risk means the possibility of loss. It can be defined as the chances of loss due to certain uncertain events in the future. It may be of two types, such as speculative risk and pure risk.
Speculative risk – It involves both chances of gain or loss. It arises due to change in demand and supply, change in taste and habits of customers etc. If the market condition is favourable it will result in gain, otherwise, loss.
Pure risk – It involves the possibility of loss or even no loss. Fire, theft, earthquake, strike etc. are the examples of pure risks. If such events take place, it may result in loss, non occurrence of which is explain absence of loss, instead of gain.

Nature of Business Risks
1. It arises due to uncertainties.
2. It is an essential part of every business (Unavoidable).
3. Degree of risk depends on the nature and size of business.
4. Profit is the reward for bearing risk.

Methods of dealing with risk
1. Not to enter high risky transactions.
2. Take precautionary measures like firefighting equipments etc.
3. Take an insurance policy to cover various risks.
4. Take measures like provision for bad debts, investment fluctuation fund etc.

Causes of Business Risk
1. Natural Causes: It may include damages from flood, fire, earthquake etc.
2. Human Causes: It may arise due to certain human activities, such as theft, bad debt, mistakes, accidents etc.
3. Economic Causes: It include uncertainties relating to demand for products, competition, price, change in technology, rise in interest rate, higher taxes etc.
4. Other Causes: Political disturbances, mechanical failures, change in exchange rates, etc. come under this category.

Starting a business – Basic Factors

1. Selection of line of business – It means the nature and type of business that an entrepreneur should choose to start his business.
2. Size of the firm – The promoter has to decide the size of business, which may be either small scale, medium scale or large scale depends on the financial stability, future demand etc.
3. Choice of form of ownership – The promoter must decide whether he wants to start a sole proprietorship concern, partnership firm, private company, public company, or cooperative society.
4. Location of business – It must be decided by considering the factors like availability of land, electricity, water, accessibility to market, transportation, scope for expansion etc.
Unscientific location affects the efficiency and profitability of business.
5. Financing the proposition (Capital needs) – The promoter has to decide about business capital requirements and also find out the sources of finance. It may include short term or long term capital requirements, sources like shares, debentures or bank loans, cost of capital (interest or dividend) etc.
6. Physical facilities – It means the resources used to convert raw material into finished goods, which includes buildings, machines and equipments, skilled and unskilled workers, good quality raw materials etc.
7. Plant lay out – A proper arrangement of physical facilities like machines, equipment and workers will result in reduction of wastages, better use of available space, safety and security to workers etc. It also increases the profit of the business.
8. Competent and committed work force – A scientific planning must be done by the businessman in calculating the number of employees (skilled and unskilled) to be appointed in various positions, and their qualities.
9. Tax planning – Tax planning does not mean non-payment of tax. It means to minimize the taxes through better planning about location (tax free zones), size of business etc.
10.Launching the enterprise – After completing the above formalities, the entrepreneur can launch his business by mobilizing necessary resources, starting production process and initiating sales promotion activities.

Business Trade and Commerce Class 11 Business Studies Notes

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