Please refer to Chapter 1 Planning in Sports Notes Class 12 Physical Education and questions with solutions below. These revision notes and important examination questions have been prepared based on the latest Physical Education books for Class 12. You can go through the questions and solutions below which will help you to get better marks in your examinations. You can refer to Class 12 Physical Education Notes provided by us for all chapters in your NCERT Book for Class 12 Physical Education.

## Class 12 Physical Education Notes Chapter 1 Planning in Sports

**Meaning and Objectives of Planning:**

Planning is the process of thinking about and organizing the activities required to achieve a desired goal. Planning comprises the process of setting goals, developing strategies and outlining tasks and schedules to accomplish the goals.

According to **Mitchell**, “Planning is usually interpreted as a process to develop a strategy to achieve desired objectives, to solve problems and to facilitate action”.

According to **Allen**, “A plan is a trap laid to capture the future”.

**Objectives of Planning**

- To reduce unnecessary pressure of immediacy
- To keep good control over all the activities
- To reduce the chances of mistakes
- To enhance the sports performance
- To increase the creativity
- Arranging Resource
- To make proper coordination
- To increase the efficiency

**Various Committees and its Responsibilities (Pre; during & post)**

**Pre competition**

- Organizing committee
- Publicity committee
- Accommodation committee
- Refreshment committee
- Official committee
- Entertainment committee
- Reception committee
- Transport committee
- Medical committee
- Committee for Entries and Programme

**During competition**

- Technical committee
- Official committee
- Prize committee
- Ceremony committee

**Post competition**

- Keeping of Record
- Finance and Record
- A brief report regarding entire championship

**Tournament – Knock-Out, League or Round Robin and Combination**Tournaments are a series of sports events in which a team finally wins and rest of the teams lose the matches.

**Importance of Tournament**

- Promote entertainment
- Development of sports skills
- Promotes integration at national and international levels
- Helpful in selection of deserving players
- Development of social qualities
- Promotion of sports

**Types of tournaments**There are four types of tournaments which are mentioned below.

- Knock-Out Tournament.
- Combination Tournament.
- League or Round Robin League Tournament.
- Challenge tournament.

**Knock out Tournament**In a knock out tournament any team which looses out of an opponent is automatically eliminated from the tournament. Hence, the defeated team does not get a second chance to compete in the tournament.

Only the winning teams continue to compete and get opportunities for further competition.

**Advantages of knock-out tournament:**

- The knock-out tournament is less expensive because the team, which gets defeated, is eliminated from the competition.
- The knock-out tournament is helpful in enhancing the standard of sports, because each team tries to present the best performance to avoid the defeat.
- Owing to less number of matches, it requires less time to complete the tournament.
- Minimum numbers of officials are required in organizing such type of tournaments.

**Disadvantages of knock-out tournament:**

- There may be many chances of elimination of good teams in first or second round. So, good teams may not reach into the final rounds.
- There are maximum chances of weak teams to enter into the final rounds.
- Spectators may not have enough interest in the final match.

**League or Round Robin Tournament:**League tournament is also called ‘round robin’ tournament. Mr. Burger was the first person, who imagined about the league tournament and owing to that, it is also called ‘Burger System’. According to this tournament, every team playswith every other team once, if it is a single league tournament. If it is a double league tournament, each team plays with every other team twice.

**Types of league tournament:**

- Single League tournament 2. Double League tournament

**Advantages of league tournament:**

- Only strong or deserving teams get victory in the tournament.
- Every team gets full opportunity to show its efficiency or performance.
- Sports and games can be made more popular through league tournament owing to maximum number of matches.
- In such type of tournament the sports official do not face any difficulty while selecting the appropriate player of team. They have enough time to watch the efficiency of a player.
- Appropriate opportunities are available to the players to improve their performance.
- The spectators also get good opportunity to watch many games.

**Disadvantages of league tournament:**

- It requires more time.
- It costs more.
- The teams coming from far and wide generally face more problems because such tournaments waste their time and money.
- It requires more arrangements for sports official and teams.
- Most of the teams become psychologically down due to their defeat again and again. In such situation, these teams become unable to show good performance. That is why; the spectators do not get proper recreation.

**3. Combination Tournament:**

- Knock-out cum Knock-out:
- League cum League:
- Knock-out cum League:
- League cum Knock-out Tournament:

**Procedure to draw Fixture – Knock-out (Bye and Seeding) and League (staircase and Cyclic)**

**Knock out TournamentFixtures**The schedule fixed for the matches to be played, their times, place, court or ground number and date etc. are called fixture. A fixture is a detailed programme made by the organizers before few days of the competition.

**Essential points for knock-out tournament:** To prepare the fixtures for knock out tournament is really very significant part. The following points must be taken into consideration while preparing fixtures.

- Number of participating teams in the competitions.
- Number of teams to be put in each half or quarter.
- Number of byes to be given in each quarter of each half.
- Total number of rounds.
- Total number of matches.

**Method of preparing fixture in knock-out tournament :**In knock-out tournament the total number of matches can be calculated by subtracting one from the total number of teams. For example if 8 teams are participating in the tournament then the number of total matches will be, 8-1=7. It means there will be only 7 matches in the tournament. These teams, i.e. 8 teams should be divided into two halves. It is possible only, if the total number of teams is the power of 2, such as 2,4,8,16,32 etc. It is very easy to draw the fixture in such case. The total number of teams is divided into equal halves and then matches are decided by draw of lots. If the total number of teams is not the power of 2 such as 3,5,6,7,9,10 etc. then byes are given. The teams, which are given byes, do not play in the first round. Byes are given in the first round by which the number of teams playing in the later rounds is reduced to a power of 2. In fact, a bye refers to a dummy team that does not play in the first round but participates in the second round. The number of byes in a fixture is the actual difference between the number of teams participating in the tournament and the next highest number which is the power of 2.

**To calculate the number of teams in each half:**If the number of teams is in the power of 2, it Becomes easy to divide the teams in two halves.

But if the number of teams is not the power of two the following procedure is applied.

Upper half = Total number of teams + 1 /2

It means (N+1)/2, where ‘N’ is the total number of teams.

Lower half = Total number of teams -1/2**Bye:** The advantage given to a team usually by drawing a lot, exempting the team from playing a match in the 1st round is called bye.

**Method of fixing byes:**The byes are fixed in upper and lower halves in the following order:

- The first bye is given to the last teams of lower half.
- The second bye is given to the first team of upper half.
- The third bye is given to the first team of lower half
- The forth bye is given to the last team of upper half.
- The next bye or byes will be given in the same order as described above.

**Number of matches in knock- out tournament:**The number of matches in the knock- out tournament is (N-1), where ‘N’ denotes for number of teams participating in a tournament. For example, if 11 teams are participating in knock- out tournament, the number of matches will be N-1 – 11-1= 10 matches

**Number of rounds in knock out tournament:**If the number of participating teams is the power of 2, (in case of 16 teams), the number of rounds will be 2x2x2x2= 4 rounds. If the number of participating teams is not the power of 2, the number of rounds will be based on the next highest power of 2. Suppose, there are 10 teams, the next highest power of 2 is 16. The number of round will be 2x2x2x2=4 rounds. If the number of teams is 19, the number of rounds will be 2x2x2x2x2= 5 rounds, because the next

highest power of 2 is 32.

**Number of teams in each quarter:**If the number of teams is less, the teams are divided into upper and lower halves only. On the other hand, if number of teams is more, teams are divided into upper and lower halves and these halves are further divided into two parts. It means that the upper half has two quarters, i.e. I

^{st}quarter and II

^{nd}quarter and the lower half has III

^{rd}quarter and IV

^{th}quarter. For determining the number of teams in each quarter, the total number of teams is divided by 4. If the remainder remains zero, there will be 4 quarters with equal number of teams. If remainder remains the following method will be applied.

**Consolation Tournament**In knock-out tournament, the team once defeated is eliminated or it can be said that such team does not get second opportunity to play after losing a match. In knock-out tournament, a good team can be eliminated if by chance it plays with another good team in the first round. It may be a setback to that team. Therefore, consolation tournament is organized.

In consolation tournament one additional chance is given to the defeated teams. In this tournament, the winner is declared

**First type:** In this type of consolation tournament, each team gets two opportunities to play the matches. The teams which are defeated in the first match get the opportunity to play in this type of tournament.

**Second type:** In this type of consolation tournament, the teams defeated in all the rounds, are given an additional opportunity to take part in competition.

**Seeding:**The sorting of the teams and fitting them in the fixtures so that the stronger teams do not meet each other in earlier rounds is called seeding.

**Simple Seeding method: **there is always a possibility in knock-out tournament that strong teams may be paired with weak teams or all strong teams might have been grouped in upper or lower half. In this way, some strong teams have the possibilities to be eliminated in the preliminary round. To avoid such a situation seeding method is used. In this method, the strong teams are selected to keep them at appropriate place in a fixture. For the selection of strong teams, the organizer must be well-aware regarding the previous performance of teams. If two teams are to be seeded, then winner of the previous tournament will be placed at the bottom of lower half and the loser on the top of upper half. If four teams are to be seeded, the first two teams will be kept at the places maintained above. The third seeded team will be kept on the top of lower half and the fourth seeded team will be kept at the lowest place in the upper half. All the teams except seeded teams are kept in the fixtures by lots.

**Special seeding:** In special seeding, the seeded players participate directly in quarter final or semi final. They need not wait for longer duration.

**Procedure of fixture in league tournament:** The following methods are used for fixtures in league tournaments:

- Cyclic Method
- Staircase Method
- Tubular or Graphical Method

**Cyclic Method:** in cycle method, if the number of teams is even, the team number 1 is fixed on the top of right hand side and then other team numbers in ascending order consecutively downward and then upward on the left side. If the number of teams is in odd. the bye is fixed on the top of the right side.

The rest of the procedure remains the same.

Teams are rotated in clockwise direction. If number of teams is even, the number of rounds will be (N-l). On the other hand, if the number of teams is odd, the number of rounds will remain the same.

**Staircase Method:** In staircase method fixtures are made just like a ladder or a staircase. This method is the easiest method because no bye is given to any team and there is no problem of odd and even number to teams.

**Methods of deciding the winner in League Tournament:**If a team gets maximum points in a tournament- it is declared the winner of the tournament. The following way is used to give the points:

Winner of the match = 2 Points

Loser of the match = 0 point

Draw or equal match = 1 point

The following table is used to calculate the final points scored by each team.

If the points are equal in case of two reams, their match is held again. But if it remains draw, the team that win the maximum number of matches is declared the winner. If the tie still remains, the team that scores maximum number of goals is declared as the winner. If the tie still remains, a match is held again between these two teams. If there is a draw again, the winner is declared by a toss.

Other methods that can be applied to declare the winner are: