Please refer to Chapter 7 Physiology and Sports Notes Class 12 Physical Education Notes Class 12 Physical Education and questions with solutions below. These revision notes and important examination questions have been prepared based on the latest Physical Education books for Class 12. You can go through the questions and solutions below which will help you to get better marks in your examinations. You can refer to Class 12 Physical Education Notes provided by us for all chapters in your NCERT Book for Class 12 Physical Education.
Class 12 Physical Education Notes Chapter 7 Physiology and Sports
Physiological Factors Determining the Components of Physical Fitness
There are various factors which determine the components of physical fitness such as strength, speed, endurance and flexibility etc. which are described below:
A. Physiological Factors Determining Strength:
- Size of the Muscles
- Body Weight
- Muscles Composition
- Intensity of the Nerve Impulse
B. Physiological Factors Determining Speed:
- Mobility of the Nervous System
- Muscle Composition
- Bio-chemical Reserve and Metabolic Power
- Explosive Strength
C. Physiological Factors Determining Endurance
1. Aerobic Capacity: The aerobic capacity depends on the following factors:
- a. Oxygen Intake
- b. Oxygen Transport
- c. Oxygen Uptake
- d. Energy Reserves
- Lactic Acid Tolerance
- Movement Economy
- Muscle Composition
D. Physiological Factors Determining Flexibility
- Muscle Strength
- Joint Structure
- Age and Gender
- Stretch-ability of Muscles
- Internal Environment
- Previous Injury
Effects of Exercises on Cardio-Respiratory System:
- Helps in decreasing blood pressure
- Improvement in chemical composition
- Cardiac output increases
- Less chances of heart diseases
- Strong heart muscles
- Helps to decrease cholesterol level
- Quick recovery rate
- Faster healing
- Faster removal of waste
- Formation of more capillaries
- Tidal volume increases
- Safety from diseases
- Resistance power increases
Effects of Exercises on the Muscular System:
- Changes in shape and size of muscles
- Formation of more capillaries
- Muscles remain in tone position
- Change in the connective tissue
- Efficiency in the movement of muscles
- Aerobic and anaerobic endurance increases
- Control extra fats
- Delays fatigue
- Increases food storage
- Increase in hypertrophy of muscles
- Body posture remains correct
- Non-functioning fibers become activity
Sports Injuries: Classification, Causes and Prevention & Treatment
Sports Injuries (athletic injury): –
A sports injury is a disruption in the continuity of the tissue due to the sports activities is called sports injuries.
There are two types of injuries – open and closed. In closed injuries the skin and muscles membranes are intact, uninjured as contusions, sprains, dislocation and fracture. In open injuries the skin or the muscles membranes have been violated. Open injuries are also called wounds.
Classification of Sports Injuries: Sports injuries can be classified in the following ways:
Accidents and injuries in games and sports may occur due to following reasons.
- Poor physical fitness of a participant.
- Lack of proper training
- Poor maintenance of playing area.
- Collision with an opponent.
- Fatigue, Carelessness.
- Lack of skills
- Lack of warming up
- Improper of faulty equipment.
- Foul play and roughness.
- Poor officiating & supervision.
Prevention from sports injuries
- Physical fitness
- Proper worming-up
- Good coaching skills
- Proper training
- Use protection guard while playing
- Use balanced diet
- Medical check-up
- Control aggression and violence
- Use proper provision of facilities
- Substances abuse
- Contusion (Bruise):
Contusion is a muscles injury. It is a common athletic injury and it can due to direct pressure to any part of the body. A direct hit with any sports equipment or a direct blow anywhere on the surface of the body.
Commonly it is known as muscle pull. It is the result of stress or force applied on tissues. It can occur anywhere at the muscles or tendons.
This is an injury of the ligaments. It occurs due to over stretching or tearing of ligaments.
It is a skin injury. It is a superficial (not deep) injury of skin or mucous membranes due to rubbing or scraping.
It is the cut over the skin caused due to severe impact of an object or due to its sharp edge.
It is a surgical cut made in skin or flesh. Sometimes it may occur due to sharp edged objects of sports equipment or spikes etc. Sometimes, arteries or veins may be cut.
Fracture: It is known as broken or description in the continuity of the bone. The severity may be from simple crack to a several shattering of bone in two pieces. Fracture may be classified into the following categories.
- Stress Fracture: A stress fracture is a crack in a bone. It can be common injury in high impact sports such as long distance races or basketball etc.
- Green stick fracture: in this type of fracture bone bends and cracks instead of breaking completely into separate pieces. The bones do not break completely, the outer layer wall intact and the inner layer will break.
- Comminuted fracture: When the bone breaks into two or more pieces, it is called comminuted fracture.
- Transverse fracture: Shaft of the bone is broken. There is a break is longitudinal. It is a break of a part of one of the bones of the spine. It is shaped like a wing.
- Oblique fracture: Broken in any oblique way. It occurs when the bone is broken diagonally to the axis of the bone.
- Impacted fracture: It is a fracture in which, a piece of bones drives into another one. The end of a fractured bone enters into other bone.
It is an injury of joint, in which, adjoining bones are displaced from their original position. it is an injury to the joint in which the joint is displacement of the contiguous surface of the bone.
First Aid – Aims and Objectives
First aid is the primary help which is given to the wounded or accident victim before the arrival of a doctor.
Aim of First Aid: The main aim of first aid is to try to save the precious life of the wounded person or victim.
Objectives of First Aid
- To preserve life
- To alleviate pain and suffering
- To prevent the condition from worsening
- To promote recovery
- To procure early medical aid