Please refer to Culture And Socialisation Class 11 Sociology notes and questions with solutions below. These revision notes and important examination questions have been prepared based on the latest Sociology books for Class 11. You can go through the questions and solutions below which will help you to get better marks in your examinations.
Class 11 Sociology Culture And Socialisation Notes and Questions
I. Definition of Culture
According to Edward Tylon, “Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws Customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”
II. Dimensions of Culture
Culture has three dimension, or aspects; Cognitive, normative and material.
– This refers to how we learn to process what we hear or see, so as to give it meaning. It is the understanding, how we make sense of all the information coming to us from our environment. E.g., identifying the ring of a cell-phone as ours, recognizing the cartoon of a politician.
This refers to rules of Conduct. The normative dimension consists of folkways, mores, customs, conventions and laws. These are values or rules that guide social behaviour in different contexts. We used to follow it as a result of socialization. Eg : Not opening other people’s letters , Performing rirtuals at death
– This includes any activity made possible by means of materials. It also includes tools or machines. The material aspect refers to tools, technologies, machines, buildings and modes of transportation, as well as instruments of production and communication. Technology is an important of material culture.
Eg : Internet chatting, Using rice-flour paste to design ‘Kolam’ on floors.
II. Cultural Lag
There are two principal dimensions of culture: material and non-material. The material dimension is crucial to increase production and enhance the quality of life. Non-material dimensions consist of cognitive and normative aspects. For integrated functioning of a culture the material and non-material dimensions must work together. But when the material or technological dimensions change rapidly, the non-material aspects can lag behind in terms of values and norms. This can give rise to a situation of culture lag when the non-material dimensions are unable to match the advances of technology.
Culture and Identity
Identities are not inherited but fashioned both by the individual and the group through their relationship with other. The social roles that he / she plays imparts identity.
A culture has many subcultures. Subcultures have own style, taste and association Subcultures are Identifiable by their speech, dress codes, particular kind of music or manner of interaction etc
Ethnocentrism is the application of one’s own cultural values in evaluating the behaviors and beliefs of people from other cultures. It is a sense of cultural Superiority.
Cosmopolitanism is the opposite of ethnocentrism. It accommodates and values other cultural elements. It promotes cultural exchange and borrowings to enrich one’s own culture.
Eg : Indians use English language, Mixing of pop music in Hindi and Malayalam Songs.
V. Cultural Change
Cultural change is the way in which societies change their patterns of culture.
Causes of Cultural Change
1) Changes in the natural environment
2) Contact with other cultures
3) Expansion of the media
4) Technological development
5) Revolution (Eg: French Revolution)
Socialisation is the most important process in the life of an individual. It is a lifelong process. Socialisation can be defined as a process by which the helpless infant gradually becomes a self aware, knowledgeable and skilled person in the ways of culture in to which he/she is born. Through socialisation individual internalises the norms of the group.
Stages of Socialisation
1. Primary Socialisation:
Socialisation is a lifelong process even though the most critical process happens in the early years.
2. Secondary Socialisation:
Secondary socialisation as we saw extends over the entire life of a person. The process of learning the norms, attitudes, values or behavioural patterns of the groups begins early in life and continues throughout one’s life.
Agencies of Socialisation
The child is socialised by several agencies and institutions like family, peer group, neighborhood, occupational group Social class religion etc.
The following are the main agencies of socialisation
Family is the first agent of socialisation. The process of Socialisation begins from family parents may be Key socialising agents but in the others grandparents, uncles, cousins, neighborhood may be more significant.
2) Peer Group
Peer groups are friendship groups of children of a similar age! The word peer means ‘equal’ Peer relationships often remain important throughout a person’s life. It shapes individual’s attitudes and behavior.
Schools are important agencies of socialisation. Knowledge and values imparted by teacher help children in the process of Socialisation. Sociologists have pointed out that there is a hidden curriculum in schools along with the formal curriculum.
4) Mass media
Today, mass media has become an important part of our daily life. Television, Radio; print media social media etc are important mass media. It influences our attitudes and outlook.
Other socialising Agencies.
Besides the above mentioned socialising agencies religion, law, customs, occupational group, social class, Caste etc… are other agencies of socialisation